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Growth of biotech clusters over several decades through pioneering, variety and entrepreneurial science

Biotechnology (biotech) clusters have evolved over time. Being a top biotech region in the early years 1978–1990 still positively correlates with the cluster’s biotech strength decades later. An entrepreneurial orientation of scientific actors as well as a variety of networks with partners outside the cluster both contribute to sustained biotech activity.

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Fig. 1: The evolution of triadic patent families, 1978–2015.
Fig. 2: Average value of share of company-owned patents and share of anchor tenant.


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We would like to thank Xiao Yan Song for her support and guidance when developing relevant patent indicators. We express our gratitude to ECOOM STORE for supporting and funding this line of research.

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Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: B.V.L., C.L.¸ V.V., K.D.B. Methodology: C.L., M.G., V.V., B.V.L. Formal analysis: M.G., C.L. and B.V.L. Writing—original draft: BVL, MG, VV. Writing — review and editing: C.L., K.D.B., V.V., M.G., B.V.L.

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Correspondence to Bart Van Looy.

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Nature Biotechnology thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary Tables 1–4

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Van Looy, B., Grabowska, M., Vlaisavljevic, V. et al. Growth of biotech clusters over several decades through pioneering, variety and entrepreneurial science. Nat Biotechnol 42, 20–25 (2024).

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