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Will Ethiopia be a springboard or a stonewall for GM crops in Africa?

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Fig. 1: Timeline of events ensuing Ethiopia’s contrasting regulations about GMOs.


  1. 1.

    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Proclamation No. 655/2009. (2009).

  2. 2.

    Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Proclamation No. 896/2015.–2015-biosafetyamendment- proclamation.pdf (2015).

  3. 3.

    TELA Maize Project. Protecting maize against drought and insect damage. (2021).

  4. 4.

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Biotechnology Annual (2020).

  5. 5.

    Hunduma, T. Addis Standard (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23 April 2020).

  6. 6.

    Tewolde Berhan, G.E. Ethiopia Observer (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 8 May 2020).

  7. 7.

    Bekele, H. Addis Insight (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 7 May 2020).

  8. 8.

    Hunduma, T. Ethiopian Insight (London, 3 June 2020).

  9. 9.

    International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Position statement on genetically modified crop varieties. (2012).

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All opinions and views reflected in this Correspondence are those of the author and in no way reflect CIMMYT’s stand.

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Correspondence to Tesfaye (Shiferaw) Sida.

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The author declares no competing interests.

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Sida, T.(. Will Ethiopia be a springboard or a stonewall for GM crops in Africa?. Nat Biotechnol 39, 147–148 (2021).

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