A detailed look at the economic impact of university-licensed life science startups across the United States reveals vast differences in the effectiveness of different regions to create ventures and sustain them as viable entities.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $4.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
National Science Foundation. Higher Education Research and Development Survey, 2018 https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvyherd/#tabs-2 (accessed 5 July 2019).
Valdivia, W.D. University start-ups: critical for improving technology transfer. (Brookings, 2013).
Rubens, A., Spigarelli, F., Cavicchi, A. & Rinaldi, C. J. Enterprising Communities People Places Glob. Econ. 11, 354–372 (2017).
Kotha, R., Crama, P. & Kim, P. H. Acad. Manag. J. 61, 1307–1342 (2018).
Moore, G. & Davis, K. in Building high-tech clusters: Silicon Valley and beyond (eds. Bresnahan, T. F. & Gambardella, A.) 7–39 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).
Folta, T. B., Cooper, A. C. & Baik, Y. J. Bus. Venturing 21, 217–242 (2006).
Pe’er, A. & Keil, T. J. Bus. Venturing. 28, 354–372 (2013).
Meyer, J. W. & Rowan, B. Am. J. Sociol. 83, 340–363 (1977).
Leonard, W. University of Utah, MIT lead nation in new companies founded. The Deseret News https://www.deseretnews.com/article/700009951/University-of-Utah-MIT-lead-nation-in-new-companies-founded.html (16 February 2010; July 2019).
Maffly, B. Fits and startups: is U. tech transfer flawed? The Salt Lake Tribune https://archive.sltrib.com/article.php?id=51619785&itype=cmsid (16 May 2011; accessed 5 July 2019).
TEConomy Partners. The economic impact of the U. S. biopharmaceutical industry: national and state estimates http://phrma-docs.phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/biopharmaceuticaul-industry-economic-impact.pdf (2016; accessed 5 July 2019).
Social Security Administration. National average wage index https://www.ssa.gov/oact/cola/AWI.html (accessed 5 July 2019).
Booth, B. & Salehizadeh, B. Nat. Biotechnol. 29, 579–583 (2011).
Jacobs, J. The Economy of Cities (Vintage Books, 1969).
Jacobs, J. The Nature of Economies (Vintage Books, 2000).
Feldman, M. P. & Audretsch, D. B. Eur. Econ. Rev. 43, 409–429 (1999).
Lerner, J. Boulevard of Broken Dreams: Why Public Efforts to Boost Entrepreneurship and Venture Capital Have Failed and What to Do about It (Princeton Univ. Press, 2009).
McCann, B. T. & Folta, T. B. J. Bus. Venturing 26, 104–123 (2011).
Ivkovic, Z. & Weisbrenner, S. J. Finance 60, 267–306 (2005).
Kerr, S. Acad. Manag. J. 18, 769–783 (1975).
Roberts, A. Where Brandeis got “sunlight is the best disinfectant.” https://aroberts.us/2015/03/01/where-brandeis-got-sunlight-is-the-best-disinfectant/ (2015, accessed 5 July 2019).
Powers, J. B. & McDougall, P. P. J. Bus. Ventur. 20, 291–311 (2005).
Flanigan, J. If it’s eye care technology, this must be Orange County. The New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/15/business/smallbusiness/15edge.html (15 May 2008; accessed 5 July 2019).
We thank the Kaufmann Foundation for their generous financial support of this research.
The authors declare no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Godfrey, P.C., Allen, G.N. & Benson, D. The biotech living and the walking dead. Nat Biotechnol 38, 132–141 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-019-0399-1
The Journal of Technology Transfer (2020)