An empirical study of publicly funded collaborative research projects in biotechnology identifies contractual provisions that govern the extent of access to and openness of research results.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Data and code availability
The results were obtained using the STATA SE version 15.1 statistical software package. The do-file can be obtained from the authors upon request.
Perkmann, M. et al. Res. Policy 42, 423–442 (2013).
Hall, B. H., Link, A. N. & Scott, J. T. J. Econ. Stud. 85, 485–491 (2003).
Dasgupta, P. & David, P. Res. Policy 3, 487–521 (1994).
Blumenthal, D., Campbell, E. G., Causino, N. & Louis, K. S. N. Engl. J. Med. 335, 1734–1739 (1996).
Cohen, W.M., Florida, R., Randazzese, L. & Walsh, J. in Challenges to Research Universities (ed. R.G. Noll) 171–199 (Brookings Institution Press, 1998).
Thursby, J. G. & Thursby, M. C. Oxf. Rev. Econ. Policy 23, 620–639 (2007).
Gans, J. S. & Murray, F. in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity Revisited, Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report (eds Lerner, J. R. & Stern, S.) 51–103 (University of Chicago Press, 2012).
Czarnitzki, D., Grimpe, C. & Toole, A. A. Ind. Corp. Change 24, 251–279 (2015).
Lerner, J. & Merges, R. P. J. Ind. Econ. 46, 125–156 (1998).
Mukherjee, A. & Stern, S. Int. J. Ind. Organ. 27, 449–462 (2009).
Rai, A. K. & Cook-Deegan, R. Science 358, 874–876 (2017).
Egelie, K. J., Graff, G. D., Strand, S. P. & Johansen, B. Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 1025–1031 (2016).
Egelie, K. J., Strand, S. P., Johansen, B. & Myskja, B. K. Nat. Biotechnol. 36, 495–499 (2018).
Mazzucato, M. The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths (Anthem Press, 2015).
The Research Council of Norway. What the contract involves. https://www.forskningsradet.no/en/when-you-have-received-funding/contracts/what-the-contract-involves/ (2019).
Stevens, H., Van Overwalle, G., Van Looy, B. & Huys, I. Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 504–510 (2016).
Walsh, J.P., Arora, A. & Cohen, W.M. Effects of research tool patents and licensing on biomedical innovation. in Patents in the Knowledge-based Economy 285–340 (National Academies Press, 2003).
Lei, Z., Juneja, R. & Wright, B. D. Nat. Biotechnol. 27, 36–40 (2009).
Evans, J. A. Soc. Stud. Sci. 40, 757–791 (2010).
Blumenthal, D., Causino, N., Campbell, E. & Louis, K. S. N. Engl. J. Med. 334, 368–373 (1996).
Merton, R.K. The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations (University of Chicago Press, 1973).
Petrusson, U. Research and Utilization (University of Gothenburg, School of Business, Economics and Law, 2016).
Brandl, B. & Glenna, L. L. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 42, 622–656 (2017).
Cook-Deegan, R. & Heaney, C. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 11, 383–425 (2010).
DESCA. DESCA 2020 Model Consortium Agreement http://www.desca-2020.eu/ (2017).
Sohn, S. Y. & Lee, M. J. Technol. Transf. 37, 532–549 (2012).
Kretschmer, M., Singh, S. & Meletti, B. IP & collaborative agreements in the creative industries. Zenodo https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1404869(2018).
Eggington, E., Osborn, R. & Kaplan, C. Collaborative Research between Business and Universities: The Lambert Toolkit 8 Years On (UK Intellectual Property Office, 2013).
Henry, C. & Stiglitz, J. E. Glob. Policy 1, 237–251 (2010).
Andersen, B. & Konzelmann, S. Res. Policy 37, 12–28 (2008).
The authors thank the Center for Intellectual Property (CIP) at the University of Gothenburg, Chalmers University of Technology and Norwegian University of Science and Technology for strategic insights on intellectual property platforms, as well as NORSI, the Norwegian Research School in Innovation. The authors also sincerely thank U. Petrusson at the University of Gothenburg and B. Johansen at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology for supervision and for discussions, and G. D. Graff at Colorado State University and W. Sofka at Copenhagen Business School for discussions. The following organizations have contributed as funding and supporting partners: NTNU Technology Transfer AS, Leogriff AS and the Research Council of Norway as part of Industrial PhD grants 247566 and 238770.
The authors declare no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Egelie, K.J., Lie, H.T., Grimpe, C. et al. Access and openness in biotechnology research collaborations between universities and industry. Nat Biotechnol 37, 1413–1419 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-019-0324-7