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Access and openness in biotechnology research collaborations between universities and industry

An empirical study of publicly funded collaborative research projects in biotechnology identifies contractual provisions that govern the extent of access to and openness of research results.

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Fig. 1: Modeling access and openness.
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Data and code availability

The results were obtained using the STATA SE version 15.1 statistical software package. The do-file can be obtained from the authors upon request.


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The authors thank the Center for Intellectual Property (CIP) at the University of Gothenburg, Chalmers University of Technology and Norwegian University of Science and Technology for strategic insights on intellectual property platforms, as well as NORSI, the Norwegian Research School in Innovation. The authors also sincerely thank U. Petrusson at the University of Gothenburg and B. Johansen at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology for supervision and for discussions, and G. D. Graff at Colorado State University and W. Sofka at Copenhagen Business School for discussions. The following organizations have contributed as funding and supporting partners: NTNU Technology Transfer AS, Leogriff AS and the Research Council of Norway as part of Industrial PhD grants 247566 and 238770.

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Correspondence to Knut Jørgen Egelie.

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Egelie, K.J., Lie, H.T., Grimpe, C. et al. Access and openness in biotechnology research collaborations between universities and industry. Nat Biotechnol 37, 1413–1419 (2019).

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