A&B) Relationship of observed and metabolome predicted Chao1 (A) and PD whole tree (B) diversity with self-reported measures of gastrointestinal (GI) health, as well as antibiotics use, using an OLS regression model adjusted for sex, age, and BMI. Conditions colored in red are significantly associated with both the observed and metabolome predicted metric (P-Value<0.05). C) The relationship of various GI measures with Shannon and metabolome predicted (mShannon) diversity, modelled using OLS regression adjusted for the same covariates as in (A) and (B) as well as antibiotics use (N=311). D) Comparison of mean out-of-sample performance of LASSO in predicting Shannon diversity in the whole cohort (black) and in participants who have not taken antibiotics in the last three months (gray - all 659 metabolites, red - only the 40 metabolites identified in the original analysis). Values are presented as mean +/- the Standard Error of the Mean. E) A scatter plot of metabolome predicted (mShannon) diversity and observed Shannon diversity in participants who have not taken antibiotics in the last three months, generated using only the 40 metabolites originally identified in this study. The mean R2 across the 10 cross validations, Pearson r of observed versus mShannon values, and corresponding P-Value are shown.