Characterization of microbiomes has been enabled by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. However, existing methods are not designed to combine reads from short- and long-read technologies. We present a hybrid metagenomic assembler named OPERA-MS that integrates assembly-based metagenome clustering with repeat-aware, exact scaffolding to accurately assemble complex communities. Evaluation using defined in vitro and virtual gut microbiomes revealed that OPERA-MS assembles metagenomes with greater base pair accuracy than long-read (>5×; Canu), higher contiguity than short-read (~10× NGA50; MEGAHIT, IDBA-UD, metaSPAdes) and fewer assembly errors than non-metagenomic hybrid assemblers (2×; hybridSPAdes). OPERA-MS provides strain-resolved assembly in the presence of multiple genomes of the same species, high-quality reference genomes for rare species (<1%) with ~9× long-read coverage and near-complete genomes with higher coverage. We used OPERA-MS to assemble 28 gut metagenomes of antibiotic-treated patients, and showed that the inclusion of long nanopore reads produces more contiguous assemblies (200× improvement over short-read assemblies), including more than 80 closed plasmid or phage sequences and a new 263 kbp jumbo phage. High-quality hybrid assemblies enable an exquisitely detailed view of the gut resistome in human patients.
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OPERA-MS is freely available under the MIT license at https://github.com/CSB5/OPERA-MS.
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This work was supported by funding from the National Healthcare Group (NHG-CSCS/12008 and SIDI/2013/008) to K.M. and O.T.N., BMRC IAF (IAF311018) to K.M., O.T.N. and N.N., HBMS IAF-PP (H18/01/a0/016) and A*STAR Singapore to N.N.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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