Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Bright and stable perovskite light-emitting diodes in the near-infrared range


Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted broad attention due to their rapidly increasing external quantum efficiencies (EQEs)1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15. However, most high EQEs of perovskite LEDs are reported at low current densities (<1 mA cm−2) and low brightness. Decrease in efficiency and rapid degradation at high brightness inhibit their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate perovskite LEDs with exceptional performance at high brightness, achieved by the introduction of a multifunctional molecule that simultaneously removes non-radiative regions in the perovskite films and suppresses luminescence quenching of perovskites at the interface with charge-transport layers. The resulting LEDs emit near-infrared light at 800 nm, show a peak EQE of 23.8% at 33 mA cm−2 and retain EQEs more than 10% at high current densities of up to 1,000 mA cm−2. In pulsed operation, they retain EQE of 16% at an ultrahigh current density of 4,000 mA cm−2, along with a high radiance of more than 3,200 W s−1 m−2. Notably, an operational half-lifetime of 32 h at an initial radiance of 107 W s−1 m−2 has been achieved, representing the best stability for perovskite LEDs having EQEs exceeding 20% at high brightness levels. The demonstration of efficient and stable perovskite LEDs at high brightness is an important step towards commercialization and opens up new opportunities beyond conventional LED technologies, such as perovskite electrically pumped lasers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Get just this article for as long as you need it


Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Fig. 1: Perovskite LED structure and performance.
Fig. 2: Characteristics of perovskite films and molecular interactions.
Fig. 3: Charge-carrier kinetics of perovskite films.
Fig. 4: Time-resolved PL decay kinetics of perovskites with charge-transport layers.

Data availability

The data underlying this paper are available at the University of Cambridge repository (


  1. Tan, Z.-K. et al. Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 687–692 (2014).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Hassan, Y. et al. Ligand-engineered bandgap stability in mixed-halide perovskite LEDs. Nature 591, 72–77 (2021).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Zhao, B. et al. High-efficiency perovskite–polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 12, 783–789 (2018).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Kim, Y.-H. et al. Comprehensive defect suppression in perovskite nanocrystals for high-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 15, 148–155 (2021).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Cao, Y. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249–253 (2018).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Xu, W. et al. Rational molecular passivation for high-performance perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 13, 418–424 (2019).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Zhao, B. et al. Efficient light-emitting diodes from mixed-dimensional perovskites on a fluoride interface. Nat. Electron. 3, 704–710 (2020).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ma, D. et al. Distribution control enables efficient reduced-dimensional perovskite LEDs. Nature 599, 594–598 (2021).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Guo, B. et al. Ultrastable near-infrared perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat. Photon. 16, 637–643 (2022).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Chiba, T. et al. Anion-exchange red perovskite quantum dots with ammonium iodine salts for highly efficient light-emitting devices. Nat. Photon. 12, 681–687 (2018).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Chu, Z. et al. Perovskite light‐emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 22% via small‐molecule passivation. Adv. Mater. 33, 2007169 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Xiao, Z. et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nat. Photon. 11, 108–115 (2017).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Chen, J. et al. Efficient and bright white light-emitting diodes based on single-layer heterophase halide perovskites. Nat. Photon. 15, 238–244 (2021).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Kim, J. S. et al. Ultra-bright, efficient and stable perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nature 611, 688–694 (2022).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Lin, K. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature 562, 245–248 (2018).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Lian, Y. et al. Ultralow-voltage operation of light-emitting diodes. Nat. Commun. 13, 3845 (2022).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Santhanam, P., Gray, D. J. & Ram, R. J. Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097403 (2012).

    Article  ADS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Anaya, M. et al. Best practices for measuring emerging light-emitting diode technologies. Nat. Photon. 13, 818–821 (2019).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Michalet, X. et al. Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics. Science 307, 538–544 (2005).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Chen, S. et al. Near-infrared deep brain stimulation via upconversion nanoparticle–mediated optogenetics. Science 359, 679–684 (2018).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Pan, Z., Lu, Y.-Y. & Liu, F. Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates. Nat. Mater. 11, 58–63 (2012).

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Bao, C. et al. Bidirectional optical signal transmission between two identical devices using perovskite diodes. Nat. Electron. 3, 156–164 (2020).

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Deschler, F. et al. High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 1421–1426 (2014).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Zhao, L. et al. Nanosecond‐pulsed perovskite light‐emitting diodes at high current density. Adv. Mater. 33, 2104867 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Dai, X. et al. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots. Nature 515, 96–99 (2014).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Jariwala, S. et al. Local crystal misorientation influences non-radiative recombination in halide perovskites. Joule 3, 3048–3060 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Min, H. et al. Efficient, stable solar cells by using inherent bandgap of α-phase formamidinium lead iodide. Science 366, 749–753 (2019).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Kim, G. et al. Impact of strain relaxation on performance of α-formamidinium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. Science 370, 108–112 (2020).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Han, Q. et al. Single crystal formamidinium lead Iodide (FAPbI3): insight into the structural, optical, and electrical properties. Adv. Mater. 28, 2253–2258 (2016).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Doherty, T. A. S. et al. Performance-limiting nanoscale trap clusters at grain junctions in halide perovskites. Nature 580, 360–366 (2020).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Quilettes, D. W. et al. Impact of microstructure on local carrier lifetime in perovskite solar cells. Science 348, 683–686 (2015).

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. Draguta, S. et al. Spatially non-uniform trap state densities in solution-processed hybrid perovskite thin films. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 7, 715–721 (2016).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Zhang, W. et al. Ultrasmooth organic–inorganic perovskite thin-film formation and crystallization for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat. Commun. 6, 6142 (2015).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Orri, J. F. et al. Using Using cathodoluminescence from continuous and pulsed-mode SEM to elucidate the nanostructure of hybrid halide perovskite materials. Microsc. Microanal. 28, 2006–2008 (2022).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Wang, J. et al. Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv. Mater. 27, 2311–2316 (2015).

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Hu, J. et al. Aryl-perfluoroaryl interaction in two-dimensional organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites boosts stability and photovoltaic efficiency. Acs. Mater. Lett. 1, 171–176 (2019).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Di, D. et al. High-performance light-emitting diodes based on carbene-metal-amides. Science 356, 159–163 (2017).

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Mello, J. C., de, Wittmann, H. F. & Friend, R. H. An improved experimental determination of external photoluminescence quantum efficiency. Adv. Mater. 9, 230–232 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Orri, J. F., Lähnemann, J., Prestat, E., Johnstone, D. N. & Tappy, N. LumiSpy/lumispy: release v0.1.2. Zenodo (2021).

  40. Cho, C. et al. Electrical pumping of perovskite diodes: toward stimulated emission. Adv. Sci. 8, 2101663 (2021).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


Y.S. and L.D. acknowledge support from the China Scholarship Council and Cambridge Trust Scholarship. L.G., L.-S.C. and D.Y. acknowledge funding from the USTC Research Funds of the Double First-Class Initiative and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (grant no. 52103242). This work was partially carried out at the USTC Centre for Micro and Nanoscale Research and Fabrication. This work used resources of the supercomputing system in the Supercomputing Centre of University of Science and Technology of China. C.C. and S.D.S. acknowledge the BrainLink program funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT through the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. NRF-2022H1D3A3A01077343). J.F.O. acknowledges funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Nano Doctoral Training Centre (grant no. EP/L015978/1). SEM-CL studies were supported by the EPSRC (grant no. EP/R025193/1) and G. Kusch is thanked for his continued support with the cathodoluminescence system. K.J. acknowledges funding from the Royal Society. S.D.S. acknowledges funding from the Royal Society and Tata Group (UF150033). We acknowledge support from the European Research Council (European Union’s Horizon 2020, grant nos. HYPERION 756962 and PEROVSCI 957513). S.J.Z. acknowledges support from the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange in the Bekker program (grant no. PPN/BEK/2020/1/00264/U/00001). Y.L. acknowledges support from Simons Foundation (grant no. 601946) and A*STAR under its Young Achiever Award. This work used resources provided by the Cambridge Service for Data Driven Discovery (CSD3) operated by the University of Cambridge Research Computing Service, provided by Dell EMC and Intel using Tier-2 funding from the EPSRC (grant no. EP/P020259/1) and DiRAC funding from the Science and Technology Facilities Council. GIWAXS studies were supported by Diamond Light Source for time on Beamline I07 under proposal numbers SI30575-1 and SI30043-1 and M. Anaya, Y. Lu, Y.-H. Chiang and Q. Gu helped with measurement. This work was supported by EPSRC grant nos. EP/R023980/1, EP/S030638/1 and EP/V06164X/1.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Y.S., L.-S.C. and N.C.G. conceived the work. Y.S. developed efficient perovskite LEDs under the supervision of L.-S.C. and N.C.G. L.G. performed chemical synthesis, FTIR and XPS under the supervision of L.-S.C. L.D. performed transient absorption spectroscopy measurements. Y.S. and L.D. performed time-resolved PL measurements. C.C. performed confocal TCSPC measurements. J.F.O. and M.C.L. performed STEM–HAADF and energy-dispersive X-ray measurements under the supervision of C.D. J.F.O. performed SEM-CL measurements. K.J. performed hyperspectral imaging measurements. S.J.Z. performed PDS measurements. A.J.M. performed GIWAXS measurements. Y.L. performed DFT simulations. Y.Z. performed SEM measurements. L.G., Y.W., K.G. and D.Y. performed NMR measurements. L.Z. performed AFM measurements. J.-Y.H., J.L., E.M.T. and S.D.S. assisted in interpreting results. Y.S. wrote the manuscript, which was revised by L.-S.C. and N.C.G. All authors contributed to the work and commented on the paper.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Lin-Song Cui or Neil C. Greenham.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Peer review

Peer review information

Nature thanks Shuxia Tao and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

This file contains Supplementary Figs. 1–19, Notes 1–5, Tables 1–3 and References.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sun, Y., Ge, L., Dai, L. et al. Bright and stable perovskite light-emitting diodes in the near-infrared range. Nature 615, 830–835 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing