Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Landfalling hurricane track modes and decay

Matters Arising to this article was published on 22 June 2022

The Original Article was published on 11 November 2020

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Dependence of decay on land–sea mask and SST.
Fig. 2: Landfalling hurricane track modes and decay.

Data availability

The Atlantic HURDAT2 best-track data9 are available at The HadISST data3 are available at The ERA5 reanalysis4 is available at The post-processed data from LC are available at The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request.


  1. Li, L. & Chakraborty, P. Slower decay of landfalling hurricanes in a warming world. Nature 587, 230–234 (2020).

  2. Li, L. & Chakraborty, P. Author Correction: Slower decay of landfalling hurricanes in a warming world. Nature 593, E4–E11 (2021).

  3. Rayner, N. et al. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 108, 4407 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Hersbach, H. et al. The ERA5 global reanalysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 146, 1999–2049 (2020).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chavas, D. land_or_ocean.m. MATLAB Central File Exchange (2020).

  6. Miyamoto, Y. & Takemi, T. An effective radius of the sea surface enthalpy flux for the maintenance of a tropical cyclone. Atmos. Sci. Lett. 11, 278–282 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Colbert, A. J., Soden, B. J., Vecchi, G. A. & Kirtman, B. P. The impact of anthropogenic climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks. J. Clim. 26, 4088–4095 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Murakami, H. & Wang, B. Future change of North Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks: projection by a 20-km-mesh global atmospheric model. J. Clim. 23, 2699–2721 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Landsea, C. W. & Franklin, J. L. Atlantic hurricane database uncertainty and presentation of a new database format. Mon. Weath. Rev. 141, 3576–3592 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2019YFC1510400), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41975052), the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Macau Science and Technology Development Joint Fund (41861164027), the Innovation Group Project of the Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai) (311021001), the Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies (2020B1212060025), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Sun Yat-sen University (2021qntd29).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



K.T.F.C. conceived the idea, supervised the study and wrote the manuscript. K.T.F.C., K.Z. and Y.W. performed the analysis. All authors contributed to the discussion and editing of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kelvin T. F. Chan.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Extended data

is available for this paper at

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data figures and tables

Extended Data Fig. 1 Categorization of landfalling track modes.

Following LC, at least four continuous inland data points should exist. The intensity of the landfalling hurricane at the first data point is ≥ 33 m s−1. The threshold of translation velocity at 10 km h−1 and the criterial angle between the landfalling track and coastline at 45° have been practically validated that can physically distinguish the characteristics among different landfalling track modes.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chan, K.T.F., Zhang, K., Wu, Y. et al. Landfalling hurricane track modes and decay. Nature 606, E7–E11 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing