The ocean is warming, losing oxygen and being acidified, primarily as a result of anthropogenic carbon emissions. With ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation projected to increase for decades, extreme events, such as marine heatwaves, will intensify, occur more often, persist for longer periods of time and extend over larger regions. Nevertheless, our understanding of oceanic extreme events that are associated with warming, low oxygen concentrations or high acidity, as well as their impacts on marine ecosystems, remains limited. Compound events—that is, multiple extreme events that occur simultaneously or in close sequence—are of particular concern, as their individual effects may interact synergistically. Here we assess patterns and trends in open ocean extremes based on the existing literature as well as global and regional model simulations. Furthermore, we discuss the potential impacts of individual and compound extremes on marine organisms and ecosystems. We propose a pathway to improve the understanding of extreme events and the capacity of marine life to respond to them. The conditions exhibited by present extreme events may be a harbinger of what may become normal in the future. As a consequence, pursuing this research effort may also help us to better understand the responses of marine organisms and ecosystems to future climate change.
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N.G., M.V. and T.L.F. acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (project XEBUS and PP00P2-198897), and from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 820989 (project COMFORT). The work reflects only the authors’ views; the European Commission and their executive agency are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information the work contains. P.W.B. was primarily supported by the Australian Research Council through a Laureate (FL160100131). P.W.B. also acknowledges support from NSF to the SCOR infrastructure project COBS (Changing Ocean Biological Systems). N.G. thanks F. Desmet, E. Köhn and J. Perreten for evaluating and analysing the regional ocean biogeochemical model simulations for the northeast Pacific Blob event. The GFDL ESM2M simulations were conducted by Friedrich Burger on the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre. We thank K. Fennel and A. Sen Gupta for their constructive reviews and inputs.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Peer review information Nature thanks Katja Fennel and Alex Sen Gupta and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Gruber, N., Boyd, P.W., Frölicher, T.L. et al. Biogeochemical extremes and compound events in the ocean. Nature 600, 395–407 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03981-7
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