The design and control of material interfaces is a foundational approach to realize technologically useful effects and engineer material properties. This is especially true for two-dimensional (2D) materials, where van der Waals stacking allows disparate materials to be freely stacked together to form highly customizable interfaces. This has underpinned a recent wave of discoveries based on excitons in stacked double layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), the archetypal family of 2D semiconductors. In such double-layer structures, the elegant interplay of charge, spin and moiré superlattice structure with many-body effects gives rise to diverse excitonic phenomena and correlated physics. Here we review some of the recent discoveries that highlight the versatility of TMD double layers to explore quantum optics and many-body effects. We identify outstanding challenges in the field and present a roadmap for unlocking the full potential of excitonic physics in TMD double layers and beyond, such as incorporating newly discovered ferroelectric and magnetic materials to engineer symmetries and add a new level of control to these remarkable engineered materials.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 30 October 2023
Essential role of momentum-forbidden dark excitons in the energy transfer responses of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides
npj 2D Materials and Applications Open Access 25 July 2023
Nature Communications Open Access 07 April 2023
Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals
Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription
$29.99 / 30 days
cancel any time
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 51 print issues and online access
$199.00 per year
only $3.90 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Butov, L. V., Zrenner, A., Abstreiter, G., Böhm, G. & Weimann, G. Condensation of indirect excitons in coupled AlAs/GaAs quantum wells. Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 304–307 (1994).
Zhu, X., Littlewood, P. B., Hybertsen, M. S. & Rice, T. M. Exciton condensate in semiconductor quantum well structures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1633–1636 (1995).
Eisenstein, J. P. & MacDonald, A. H. Bose–Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems. Nature 432, 691–694 (2004).
Kleemans, N. A. J. M. et al. Many-body exciton states in self-assembled quantum dots coupled to a Fermi sea. Nat. Phys. 6, 534–538 (2010).
Byrnes, T., Recher, P. & Yamamoto, Y. Mott transitions of exciton polaritons and indirect excitons in a periodic potential. Phys. Rev. B 81, 205312 (2010).
Biolatti, E., Iotti, R. C., Zanardi, P. & Rossi, F. Quantum information processing with semiconductor macroatoms. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5647–5650 (2000).
Chen, P., Piermarocchi, C. & Sham, L. J. Control of exciton dynamics in nanodots for quantum operations. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 067401 (2001).
De Rinaldis, S. et al. Intrinsic exciton-exciton coupling in GaN-based quantum dots: Application to solid-state quantum computing. Phys. Rev. B 65, 081309(R) (2002).
Aharonovich, I., Englund, D. & Toth, M. Solid-state single-photon emitters. Nat. Photon. 10, 631–641 (2016).
Ghosh, S. & Liew, T. C. H. Quantum computing with exciton-polariton condensates. npj Quant. Inf. 6, 16 (2020).
Butov, L. V., Gossard, A. C. & Chemla, D. S. Macroscopically ordered state in an exciton system. Nature 418, 751–754 (2002).
High, A. A. et al. Spontaneous coherence in a cold exciton gas. Nature 483, 584–588 (2012).
Lai, C. W., Zoch, J., Gossard, A. C. & Chemla, D. S. Phase diagram of degenerate exciton systems. Science 303, 503–506 (2004).
Remeika, M., Fogler, M. M., Butov, L. V., Hanson, M. & Gossard, A. C. Two-dimensional electrostatic lattices for indirect excitons. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 061103 (2012).
Remeika, M. et al. Measurement of exciton correlations using electrostatic lattices. Phys. Rev. B 92, 115311 (2015).
Leonard, J. R. et al. Pancharatnam-Berry phase in condensate of indirect excitons. Nat. Commun. 9, 2158 (2018).
Smolka, S. et al. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas. Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
Edelberg, D. et al. Approaching the intrinsic limit in transition metal diselenides via point defect control. Nano Lett. 19, 4371–4379 (2019).
Ivanov, A. L., Haug, H. & Keldysh, L. V. Optics of excitonic molecules in semiconductors and semiconductor microstructures. Phys. Rep. 296, 237–336 (1998).
Van Tuan, D., Yang, M. & Dery, H. Coulomb interaction in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. B 98, 125308 (2018).
Mak, K. F., Lee, C., Hone, J., Shan, J. & Heinz, T. F. Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
He, K. et al. Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 026803 (2014).
Wang, G. et al. Giant enhancement of the optical second-harmonic emission of WSe2 monolayers by laser excitation at exciton resonances. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 097403 (2015).
Stier, A. V., McCreary, K. M., Jonker, B. T., Kono, J. & Crooker, S. A. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 tesla. Nat. Commun. 7, 10643 (2016).
Berkelbach, T. C., Hybertsen, M. S. & Reichman, D. R. Theory of neutral and charged excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. B 88, 045318 (2013).
Xiao, D., Liu, G.-B., Feng, W., Xu, X. & Yao, W. Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
Xiao, D. et al. Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 196802 (2012).
Mak, K. F., He, K., Shan, J. & Heinz, T. F. Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
Jones, A. M. et al. Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
Xu, X., Yao, W., Xiao, D. & Heinz, T. F. Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014).
Mak, K. F. et al. Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2. Nat. Mater. 12, 207–211 (2013).
Ross, J. S. et al. Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p–n junctions. Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 268–272 (2014).
Raja, A. et al. Coulomb engineering of the bandgap and excitons in two-dimensional materials. Nat. Commun. 8, 15251 (2017).
Chaves, A. et al. Bandgap engineering of two-dimensional semiconductor materials. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 4, 29 (2020).
Peimyoo, N. et al. Engineering dielectric screening for potential-well arrays of excitons in 2D materials. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12, 55134–55140 (2020).
Sidler, M. et al. Fermi polaron-polaritons in charge-tunable atomically thin semiconductors. Nat. Phys. 13, 255–261 (2017).
Efimkin, D. K. & MacDonald, A. H. Many-body theory of trion absorption features in two-dimensional semiconductors. Phys. Rev. B 95, 035417 (2017).
Keldysh, L. V. Coulomb interaction in thin semiconductor and semimetal films. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 29, 658–661 (1979).
Chernikov, A. et al. Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 076802 (2014).
Stier, A. V., Wilson, N. P., Clark, G., Xu, X. & Crooker, S. A. Probing the influence of dielectric environment on excitons in monolayer WSe2: insight from high magnetic fields. Nano Lett. 16, 7054–7060 (2016).
Stier, A. V. et al. Magnetooptics of exciton Rydberg states in a monolayer semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 057405 (2018).
Raja, A. et al. Dielectric disorder in two-dimensional materials. Nat. Nanotechnol. 14, 832–837 (2019).
Xu, Y. et al. Correlated insulating states at fractional fillings of moiré superlattices. Nature 587, 214–218 (2020).
Novoselov, K. S. et al. Electric field in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
Kim, K. et al. Van der Waals Heterostructures with High Accuracy Rotational Alignment. Nano Lett. 16, 1989–1995 (2016).
Frisenda, R. et al. Recent progress in the assembly of nanodevices and van der Waals heterostructures by deterministic placement of 2D materials. Chem. Soc. Rev. 47, 53–68 (2018).
Kinoshita, K. et al. Dry release transfer of graphene and few-layer h-BN by utilizing thermoplasticity of polypropylene carbonate. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 3, 22 (2019).
Moon, P. & Koshino, M. Energy spectrum and quantum Hall effect in twisted bilayer graphene. Phys. Rev. B 85, 195458 (2012).
Dean, C. R. et al. Hofstadter’s butterfly and the fractal quantum Hall effect in moiré superlattices. Nature 497, 598–602 (2013).
Sharpe, A. L. et al. Emergent ferromagnetism near three-quarters filling in twisted bilayer graphene. Science 365, 605–608 (2019).
Cao, Y. et al. Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices. Nature 556, 43–50 (2018).
Serlin, M. et al. Intrinsic quantized anomalous Hall effect in a moiré heterostructure. Science 367, 900–903 (2020).
Chen, G. et al. Tunable correlated Chern insulator and ferromagnetism in a moiré superlattice. Nature 579, 56–61 (2020).
Seyler, K. L. et al. Signatures of moiré-trapped valley excitons in MoSe2/WSe2 heterobilayers. Nature 567, 66–70 (2019). Demonstration of quantum-dot-like PL from moiré IXs.
Jin, C. et al. Observation of moiré excitons in WSe2/WS2 heterostructure superlattices. Nature 567, 76–80 (2019). Demonstration of intralayer moiré excitons and moiré minibands through reflectance spectroscopy.
Tran, K. et al. Evidence for moiré excitons in van der Waals heterostructures. Nature 567, 71–75 (2019).
Alexeev, E. M. et al. Resonantly hybridized excitons in moiré superlattices in van der Waals heterostructures. Nature 567, 81–86 (2019). Demonstration and analysis of resonant interlayer hybridization in twisted TMD heterobilayers.
Tang, Y. et al. Simulation of Hubbard model physics in WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattices. Nature 579, 353–358 (2020). Realization of Hubbard-model correlated antiferromagnetism in the moiré pattern of a TMD double layer.
Wang, L. et al. Correlated electronic phases in twisted bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Mater. 19, 861–866 (2020).
Regan, E. C. et al. Mott and generalized Wigner crystal states in WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattices. Nature 579, 359–363 (2020). Realization of generalized Wigner crystals in TMD heterobilayers.
Shimazaki, Y. et al. Strongly correlated electrons and hybrid excitons in a moiré heterostructure. Nature 580, 472–477 (2020). Demonstration of hybrid inter/intralayer excitons and moiré excitons in a TMD homobilayer.
Wu, F. C., Xue, F. & Macdonald, A. H. Theory of two-dimensional spatially indirect equilibrium exciton condensates. Phys. Rev. B 92, 165121 (2015).
Fogler, M. M., Butov, L. V. & Novoselov, K. S. High-temperature superfluidity with indirect excitons in van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 5, 4555 (2014).
Liu, K. et al. Evolution of interlayer coupling in twisted molybdenum disulfide bilayers. Nat. Commun. 5, 4966 (2014).
Calman, E. V. et al. Indirect excitons in van der Waals heterostructures at room temperature. Nat. Commun. 9, 1895 (2018).
Matthews, J. W. & Blakeslee, A. E. Defects in epitaxial multilayers: I. Misfit dislocations. J. Cryst. Growth 27, 118–125 (1974).
Matthews, J. W. & Blakeslee, A. E. Defects in epitaxial multilayers. II. Dislocation pile-ups, threading dislocations, slip lines and cracks. J. Cryst. Growth 29, 273–280 (1975).
Matthews, J. W. & Blakeslee, A. E. Defects in epitaxial multilayers. III. Preparation of almost perfect multilayers. J. Cryst. Growth 32, 265–273 (1976).
Rivera, P. et al. Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2–WSe2 heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015). Demonstration of IX PL and dynamics in a TMD heterobilayer.
Heo, H. et al. Interlayer orientation-dependent light absorption and emission in monolayer semiconductor stacks. Nat. Commun. 6, 7372 (2015).
Latini, S., Winther, K. T., Olsen, T. & Thygesen, K. S. Interlayer excitons and band alignment in MoS2/hBN/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructures. Nano Lett. 17, 938–945 (2016).
Jauregui, L. A. et al. Electrical control of interlayer exciton dynamics in atomically thin heterostructures. Science 366, 870–875 (2019). Demonstration of Stark effect and doping control of IX species, their spectra and their dynamics.
Liu, G. B., Xiao, D., Yao, Y., Xu, X. & Yao, W. Electronic structures and theoretical modelling of two-dimensional group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides. Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2643–2663 (2015).
Ross, J. S. et al. Interlayer exciton optoelectronics in a 2D heterostructure p-n junction. Nano Lett. 17, 638–643 (2017).
Kim, J. et al. Observation of ultralong valley lifetime in WSe2/MoS2 heterostructures. Sci. Adv. 3, e1700518 (2017).
Miller, B. et al. Long-lived direct and indirect interlayer excitons in van der Waals heterostructures. Nano Lett. 17, 5229–5237 (2017).
Rivera, P. et al. Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2D semiconductor heterostructure. Science 351, 688–691 (2016). Study of many-body interactions of valley-polarized IX populations.
Jin, C. et al. Imaging of pure spin-valley diffusion current in WS2-WSe2 heterostructures. Science 360, 893–896 (2018).
Zhu, H. et al. Interfacial charge transfer circumventing momentum mismatch at two-dimensional van der Waals heterojunctions. Nano Lett. 17, 3591–3598 (2017).
Tang, Y. et al. Tuning layer-hybridized moiré excitons by the quantum-confined Stark effect. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 52–57 (2020).
Ruiz-Tijerina, D. A. & Fal’ko, V. I. Interlayer hybridization and moiré superlattice minibands for electrons and excitons in heterobilayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides. Phys. Rev. B 99, 125424 (2019).
Zhang, L. et al. Twist-angle dependence of moiré excitons in WS2/MoSe2 heterobilayers. Nat. Commun. 11, 5888 (2020).
Luican, A. et al. Single-layer behavior and its breakdown in twisted graphene layers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 126802 (2011).
Yu, H. et al. Moiré excitons: from programmable quantum emitter arrays to spin-orbit–coupled artificial lattices. Sci. Adv. 3, e1701696 (2017). Calculation of the properties of moiré excitons in TMD heterobilayers, and derivation of quantum-optical properties of moiré excitons.
Rosenberger, M. R. et al. Twist angle-dependent atomic reconstruction and moiré patterns in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures. ACS Nano 14, 4550–4558 (2020).
Zhang, C. et al. Interlayer couplings, moiré patterns, and 2D electronic superlattices in MoS2/WSe2 hetero-bilayers. Sci. Adv. 3, e1601459 (2017).
Woods, C. R. et al. Commensurate-incommensurate transition in graphene on hexagonal boron nitride. Nat. Phys. 10, 451–456 (2014).
Flores, M., Cisternas, E., Correa, J. D. & Vargas, P. Moiré patterns on STM images of graphite induced by rotations of surface and subsurface layers. Chem. Phys. 423, 49–54 (2013).
Zhang, Z. et al. Flat bands in twisted bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Phys. 16, 1093–1096 (2020).
Lee, K. et al. Ultrahigh-resolution scanning microwave impedance microscopy of moiré lattices and superstructures. Sci. Adv. 6, eabd1919 (2020).
McGilly, L. J. et al. Visualization of moiré superlattices. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 580–584 (2020).
Van Der Donck, M. & Peeters, F. M. Interlayer excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures. Phys. Rev. B 98, 115104 (2018).
Jung, J., Raoux, A., Qiao, Z. & Macdonald, A. H. Ab initio theory of moiré superlattice bands in layered two-dimensional materials. Phys. Rev. B 89, 205414 (2014).
Guinea, F. & Walet, N. R. Continuum models for twisted bilayer graphene: effect of lattice deformation and hopping parameters. Phys. Rev. B 99, 205134 (2019).
Wu, F., Lovorn, T., Tutuc, E. & MacDonald, A. H. Hubbard model physics in transition metal dichalcogenide moiré bands. Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 026402 (2018).
Yu, H., Wang, Y., Tong, Q., Xu, X. & Yao, W. Anomalous light cones and valley optical selection rules of interlayer excitons in twisted heterobilayers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 187002 (2015).
Baek, H. et al. Highly energy-tunable quantum light from moiré-trapped excitons. Sci. Adv. 6, 8526–8537 (2020). Demonstration of single photon emission from moiré excitons and electric-field tunability of moiré excitons.
Mucha-Kruczyński, M., Wallbank, J. R. & Fal’Ko, V. I. Moiré miniband features in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of graphene/hBN heterostructures. Phys. Rev. B 93, 085409 (2016).
Xie, S. et al. Direct observation of distinct minibands in moiré superlattices. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.07806 (2020).
Brem, S. et al. Hybridized intervalley moiré excitons and flat bands in twisted WSe2 bilayers. Nanoscale 12, 11088–11094 (2020).
Wallbank, J. R. et al. Excess resistivity in graphene superlattices caused by umklapp electron–electron scattering. Nat. Phys. 15, 32–36 (2019).
Shahnazaryan, V., Iorsh, I., Shelykh, I. A. & Kyriienko, O. Exciton-exciton interaction in transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Phys. Rev. B 96, 115409 (2017).
Wang, Z. et al. Evidence of high-temperature exciton condensation in two-dimensional atomic double layers. Nature 574, 76–80 (2019). Study of a degenerate gas of electrically pumped IX through electroluminescence.
Sigl, L. et al. Signatures of a degenerate many-body state of interlayer excitons in a van der Waals heterostack. Phys. Rev. Res. 2, 042044 (2020).
Zhu, Q., Tu, M. W. Y., Tong, Q. & Yao, W. Gate tuning from exciton superfluid to quantum anomalous Hall in van der Waals heterobilayer. Sci. Adv. 5, eaau6120 (2019).
Paik, E. Y. et al. Interlayer exciton laser of extended spatial coherence in atomically thin heterostructures. Nature 576, 80–84 (2019).
Liu, Y. et al. Room temperature nanocavity laser with interlayer excitons in 2D heterostructures. Sci. Adv. 5, eaav4506 (2019).
Latini, S., Ronca, E., De Giovannini, U., Hübener, H. & Rubio, A. Cavity control of excitons in two-dimensional materials. Nano Lett. 19, 3473–3479 (2019).
Zhang, L. et al. Van der Waals heterostructure polaritons with moiré-induced nonlinearity. Nature 591, 61–65 (2021).
Dagotto, E. & Riera, J. Superconductivity in the two-dimensional t-J model. Phys. Rev. B 46, 12084(R) (1992).
Greiner, M., Mandel, O., Esslinger, T., Hänsch, T. W. & Bloch, I. Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms. Nature 415, 39–44 (2002).
Liu, E. et al. Signatures of moiré trions in WSe2/MoSe2 heterobilayers. Nature 594, 46–50 (2021).
Huang, X. et al. Correlated insulating states at fractional fillings of the WS2/WSe2 moiré lattice. Nat. Phys. 17, 715–719 (2021).
Nagler, P. et al. Interlayer exciton dynamics in a dichalcogenide monolayer heterostructure. 2D Mater. 4, 025112 (2017).
Böning, J., Filinov, A. & Bonitz, M. Crystallization of an exciton superfluid. Phys. Rev. B 84, 75130 (2011).
Suris, R. A. Gas–crystal phase transition in a 2D dipolar exciton system. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 122, 602–607 (2016).
Padhi, B., Chitra, R. & Phillips, P. W. Generalized Wigner crystallization in moiré materials. Phys. Rev. B 103, 125146 (2021).
Jin, C. et al. Stripe phases in WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattices. Nat. Mater. 20, 940–944 (2021)
Wang, F. et al. Imaging generalized Wigner crystal states in a WSe2/WS2 moiré superlattice. Preprint at https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-390032/v1 (2021).
Slobodkin, Y. et al. Quantum phase transitions of trilayer excitons in atomically thin heterostructures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 255301 (2020).
Tong, Q., Chen, M., Xiao, F., Yu, H. & Yao, W. Interferences of electrostatic moiré potentials and bichromatic superlattices of electrons and excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides. 2D Mater. 8, 025007 (2021).
Dicke, R. H. Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes. Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).
Yu, H. & Yao, W. Luminescence anomaly of dipolar valley excitons in homobilayer semiconductor moiré superlattices. Phys. Rev. X 11, 021042 (2021).
Rezai, M., Wrachtrup, J. & Gerhardt, I. Polarization-entangled photon pairs from a single molecule. Optica 6, 34–40 (2019).
Lezama, I. G. et al. Indirect-to-direct band gap crossover in few-layer MoTe2. Nano Lett. 15, 2336–2342 (2015).
Ribeiro-Palau, R. et al. Twistable electronics with dynamically rotatable heterostructures. Science 361, 690–693 (2018). Realization of in situ control of twist angle in a vdW heterostructure.
Yao, K. et al. Enhanced tunable second harmonic generation from twistable interfaces and vertical superlattices in boron nitride homostructures. Sci. Adv. 7, eabe8691 (2021).
Bai, Y. et al. Excitons in strain-induced one-dimensional moiré potentials at transition metal dichalcogenide heterojunctions. Nat. Mater. 19, 1068–1073 (2020).
Song, T. et al. Switching 2D magnetic states via pressure tuning of layer stacking. Nat. Mater. 18, 1298–1302 (2019).
Yankowitz, M. et al. Tuning superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene. Science 363, 1059–1064 (2019).
Xia, J. et al. Strong coupling and pressure engineering in WSe2–MoSe2 heterobilayers. Nat. Phys. 17, 92–98 (2020).
Woods, C. R. et al. Charge-polarized interfacial superlattices in marginally twisted hexagonal boron nitride. Nat. Commun. 12, 347 (2021).
Stern, M. V. et al. Interfacial ferroelectricity by van der Waals sliding. Science 372, 1462–1466 (2021).
Yasuda, K., Wang, X., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T. & Jarillo-Herrero, P. Stacking-engineered ferroelectricity in bilayer boron nitride. Science 372, 1458–1462 (2021).
Zhao, P., Xiao, C. & Yao, W. Universal superlattice potential for 2D materials from twisted interface inside h-BN substrate. npj 2D Mater. Appl. 5, 38 (2021).
Weston, A. et al. Atomic reconstruction in twisted bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 592–597 (2020).
Enaldiev, V. V., Ferreira, F., Magorrian, S. J. & Fal’ko, V. I. Piezoelectric networks and ferroelectric moiré superlattice domains in twistronic WS2/MoS2 and WSe2/MoSe2 bilayers. 2D Mater. 8, 025030 (2021).
Sung, J. et al. Broken mirror symmetry in excitonic response of reconstructed domains in twisted MoSe2/MoSe2 bilayers. Nat. Nanotechnol. 15, 750–754 (2020).
Zhong, D. et al. Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics. Sci. Adv. 3, e1603113 (2017).
Sivadas, N., Okamoto, S., Xu, X., Fennie, C. J. & Xiao, D. Stacking-dependent magnetism in bilayer CrI3. Nano Lett. 18, 7658–7664 (2018).
Tong, Q., Liu, F., Xiao, J. & Yao, W. Skyrmions in the Moiré of van der Waals 2D Magnets. Nano Lett. 18, 7194–7199 (2018).
Xu, Y. et al. Emergence of a noncollinear magnetic state in twisted bilayer CrI3. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.09850 (2021).
Göser, O., Paul, W. & Kahle, H. G. Magnetic properties of CrSBr. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 92, 129–136 (1990).
Telford, E. J. et al. Layered antiferromagnetism induces large negative magnetoresistance in the van der Waals semiconductor CrSBr. Adv. Mater. 32, 2003240 (2020).
Lee, K. et al. Magnetic order and symmetry in the 2d semiconductor CrSBr. Nano Lett. 21, 3511–3517 (2021).
Wilson, N. P. et al. Interlayer electronic coupling on demand in a 2D magnetic semiconductor. Nat. Mater. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01070-8 (2021).
Wang, C. et al. A family of high-temperature ferromagnetic monolayers with locked spin-dichroism-mobility anisotropy: MnNX and CrCX (X = Cl, Br, I; C = S, Se, Te). Sci. Bull. 64, 293–300 (2019).
Andersen, T. I. et al. Excitons in a reconstructed moiré potential in twisted WSe2/WSe2 homobilayers. Nat. Mater. 20, 480–487 (2021).
Yoo, H. et al. Atomic and electronic reconstruction at the van der Waals interface in twisted bilayer graphene. Nat. Mater. 18, 448–453 (2019).
Kennes, D. M. et al. Moiré heterostructures as a condensed-matter quantum simulator. Nat. Phys. 17, 155–163 (2021).
Bloch, I. Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Nat. Phys. 1, 23–30 (2005).
Ismail, K., Chu, W., Yen, A., Antoniadis, D. A. & Smith, H. I. Negative transconductance and negative differential resistance in a grid-gate modulation-doped field-effect transistor. Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 460–462 (1989).
Forsythe, C. et al. Band structure engineering of 2D materials using patterned dielectric superlattices. Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 566–571 (2018).
Xu, Y. et al. Creation of moiré bands in a monolayer semiconductor by spatially periodic dielectric screening. Nat. Mater. 20, 645–649 (2021).
Shanks, D. N. et al. Nanoscale trapping of interlayer excitons in a 2D semiconductor heterostructure. Nano Lett. 21, 5641–5647 (2021).
N.P.W. would like to thank J. J. Finley for helpful discussions. X.X. and N.P.W. acknowledge support by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under award number DE-SC0018171. N.P.W. also acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy—EXC-2111—390814868. W.Y. acknowledges support by the Croucher Foundation (Croucher Senior Research Fellowship), and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (AoE/P-701/20). J.S. acknowledges support by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), under award number DE-SC0019481.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Peer review information Nature thanks Kristiaan De Greve, Tomasz Smolenski and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Wilson, N.P., Yao, W., Shan, J. et al. Excitons and emergent quantum phenomena in stacked 2D semiconductors. Nature 599, 383–392 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03979-1
This article is cited by
Nature Communications (2023)
Light: Science & Applications (2023)
Nature Reviews Physics (2023)
Nature Nanotechnology (2023)
Nature Communications (2023)