a, b, Amino acid substitutions in SARS-CoV-2 variants mapped onto the structure of the spike protein. Schematic layout of the spike protein monomer is depicted at the top. Structure of spike monomer (Protein Data Bank code (PDB) 7C2L, with RBD from PDB 6W41) is depicted as a cartoon, with the N-terminal domain (NTD), RBD, receptor-binding motif (RBM) and S2 coloured in orange, green, magenta and light blue, respectively. Substitutions for each variant are shown as spheres and coloured according to the legend. Substitutions shown in black are shared between several variants. The purple triangle, pink square, purple hexagon and black pentagon represent approximate locations of L5, S13, D253 and P681, respectively, which were not modelled in the original structures. CH, central helix; FP, fusion peptide; HR, heptad repeat; TM, transmembrane domain. The structural figure in a was generated using UCSF ChimeraX33. b, Viruses used with indicated coloured mutations in the spike protein. c, Summary of EC50 values (ng ml−1) of neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 viruses performed in Vero-TMPRSS2 cells. Blue shading of cells indicates a partial (EC50 > 1,000 ng ml−1) or complete (EC50 > 10,000 ng ml−1) loss of neutralizing activity. d, Neutralization curves comparing the sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 strains to the indicated individual or combinations of mAbs. Data are representative of two to five experiments, each performed in technical duplicate.