a–d, Plasma IgG antibody binding to SARS-CoV-2 RBD (a) and N protein (b) shown as area under the curve (AUC; numbers in red are mean geometric AUC), and plasma neutralizing activity (NT50) in unvaccinated (c) and vaccinated (vac) (d) individuals 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 63). n = 63 individuals, 37 convalescent unvaccinated (black) and 26 convalescent vaccinated (blue) individuals. a, b, Two-sided Kruskal–Wallis test with subsequent Dunn’s multiple comparisons. c, d, Lines connect longitudinal samples from the same individual. Two-sided Friedman test with subsequent Dunn’s multiple comparisons. Two individuals who received their first dose of vaccine 24–48 h before sample collection are represented in purple. e, Plasma neutralizing activity against indicated SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (n = 30, 15 convalescent and 15 convalescent vaccinated individuals). The B.1.526 variant used here contains the E484K substitution. Substitutions, deletions and insertions in S variants used here are described in Methods. Two-tailed Mann–Whitney test. Red numbers in c–e indicate the geometric mean NT50 at the indicated time point. All experiments were performed at least in duplicate.