Table 1 Advantages of flexible integrated circuits built with metal-oxide TFTs

From: A natively flexible 32-bit Arm microprocessor

Feature PlasticARM (this work) Flexible 8-bit ALU16 Dedicated machine learning FlexIC7 BNN FlexIC18
Area (mm2) 59.2 225.6 5.6 5.86
Technology 0.8-μm metal-oxide TFT 5-μm dual-gate organic + metal-oxide TFTs 0.8-μm metal-oxide TFT 0.8-μm metal-oxide TFT
Logic type Unipolar n-type resistive load Complementary n-type oxide and p-type organic Unipolar n-type resistive load Unipolar n-type resistive load
Supply voltage (V) 3 6.5 4.5 3
Chip pin count 28 30 23 23
Processor 32-bit Arm Cortex-M-based SoC 8-bit ALU + P2ROM Custom hardware Custom hardware
Number of devices 56,340 (39,157 TFTs plus 17,183 resistors) 3,504 3,132 (2,084 TFTs + 1,048 resistors) 4,489 (3,028 TFTs + 1,461 resistors)
NAND2-equivalent gate count 18,334 876 1,024 1,421
Max circuit clock frequency (kHz) 29 2.1 104 22
Power consumption (mW) 21 Not reported 7.2 1.1
Power density (mW mm–2) 0.4 Not reported 1.3 0.2
  1. The features are compared in terms of technology, design, implementation and measured FlexIC characteristics. ALU, arithmetic logic unit; P2ROM, print-programmable read-only memory.