a, The discharging profiles of graphite covered Li paired with LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (Li/G-NMC811) batteries, using Li5.5PS4.5Cl1.5 (LPSCl, green 10C), Li9.54Si1.74(P0.9Sb0.1)1.44S11.7Cl0.3 (LSPS, blue 10C), and multilayer LPSCl-LSPS-LPSCl configuration (purple 10C, black 1C, red 0.1C) as the electrolyte. The batteries were first charged at 0.1C and then discharged at various rates at room temperature. b, c, The cycling performance of the same multilayer battery at 5C (b) and 10C (c) in the range of 2.5–4.3 V in the environment without humidity control (55 °C). d, e, The first charge and discharge profiles of Li-LiCoO2 (Li-LCO) batteries with (d) Li5.5PS4.5Cl1.5 (LPSCl) and (e) Li10Ge1P2S12 (LGPS) as the electrolyte. Uncoated LCO and LiNbO3-coated LCO is applied for LPSCl and LGPS, respectively. f, g, The first charge and discharge profiles of graphite covered Li paired with LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (Li/G-NMC811) batteries with LPSCl as the electrolyte at (f) 0.3C and (g) 0.5C; along with the cycling performance at (h) 0.3C (LCO at 0.1C is also shown) and (i) 0.5C. All batteries in d–i were tested at room temperature. The battery configuration and materials used are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. j, Cycling performance of solid-state battery with multilayer electrolytes at different Li/graphite capacity ratios of 10:1, 5:1 and 2.5:1. k, Cycling performance of solid-state battery with multilayer electrolytes under different operating pressures of 50–75 MPa, 150 MPa and 250 MPa. l, Cycling performance of solid-state battery with thin multilayer: Li/G–LPSCl (100 μm)–LSPS (50 μm)–LPSCl (50 μm)–NMC811. m, High-power voltage profile of the Li/G–LPSCl–LSPS–LPSCl–NMC811 battery at 100C–500C at 55 °C with a cut-off voltage of 2–4.3 V. Red, blue and pink curves are from batteries first charged at 0.5C and then discharged at high C rates, and black curves are at 100C charge and discharge. 1C = 0.43 mA cm−2.