a, SEM image of the 500-mesh stainless-steel mesh as the substrate (scale bar, 50 μm). b, SEM image of LiXZM grown on the 500-mesh stainless-steel mesh (scale bar, 50 μm), which serves as the solid electrolyte for non-integrated batteries with C|LiXZM. c, XRD pattern of the commercial NASICON-type solid electrolyte of LAGP, which has a rhombohedral structure with space group36 R3c. d, The first discharge–charge curves of SSLABs with C-LiXZM, C|LiXZM and C|LAGP. The curves are additionally labelled at an areal current density of 0.065 mA cm−2 with a limited areal specific capacity of 0.13 mAh cm−2. e, Rate performances of the three SSLABs.