a, Timeline of two-choice assay involving optogenetic stimulation (blue bar) of AGRP neurons. b, Investigation times of fed control (black) and fed AGRP-ON (red) female mice to pheromones and food odours. n = 10 mice, data are mean ± s.e.m., lines with triangles represent individual mice. **P < 0.01, two-tailed Wilcoxon test (P control: 0.32; P AGRP-ON: 0.02). c, Food intake was measured before (Food 1) and after (Food 2) the odour preference assay, as indicated in the timeline, for female mice used in b. n = 10 mice, data are mean ± s.e.m., triangles represent individual mice, ***P < 0.001, Mann–Whitney U-test (P Food 1: 0.49; P Food 2: <0.0001). d, Preference indices were calculated for fed control (unfilled bars, CON) and fed AGRP-ON (filled bars, AGRP) mice after illumination of brain regions indicated (n values are as reported for the same mice in Fig. 2b, c, data are mean ± s.e.m.). e, Food intake before two-choice assay and optogenetic stimulation (Food 1 in timeline) of mice with optic fibres implanted in various brain regions (n values are as reported for the same mice in Fig. 2b, c, data are mean ± s.e.m., P values by Mann–Whitney U test from left to right: 0.47, 0.52, 0.90, 0.94, 0.18, 0.95, 0.81, 0.57, 0.89). f, Timeline of two-choice behavioural assay involving optogenetic stimulation (blue bar) of AGRP neurons in mice fed ad libitum. g, h, AAV-DIO-ChR2 was injected in the arcuate nucleus of wild-type (control) or Agrp-ires-cre (AGRP-ON) mice, and optic fibres were inserted in the PVT. Odour investigation times in the two-choice behavioural assay (g) and post-test food consumption (h, Food 1 from timeline in f) from indicated mice fed ad libitum. n = 6 (control) and 7 (AGRP-ON) mice, data are mean ± s.e.m., lines with triangles represent individual mice. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (P values by two-tailed Wilcoxon test in g: 0.56, 0.02; P value by two-tailed Mann–Whitney U-test in h: 0.0012).