Here, each point represents a single water body. a, The total range in water level (that is, maximum minus minimum) observed by gauges and ICESat-2 over the 22-month ICESat-2 record, October 2018 to July 2020. On average, we find that ICESat-2 observes 49% of the variability observed by gauges (as indicated by the dashed line). b, The mean annual range in water level over 2010–2020 (by water year) versus our observed ICESat-2 range. Here we find that, on average, ICESat-2 observes 58% (dashed line) of the 10-year mean variability.