Table 1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and in animal models

From: Animal models for COVID-19

Virus replication
Upper respiratory tractHumans, mice, ferrets, non-human primates, mink, cats and bats
Lower respiratory tractHumans, mice, hamsters, ferrets and non-human primates
Other organsHumans (GI tract, CNS and kidney), hACE2 mice (CNS), hamsters, ferrets and non-human primates (GI tract)
Clinical signs
FeverHuman and ferrets
Nasal dischargeHumans and ferrets
Laboured breathingHumans and hamsters
Bilateral lung involvementHumans, hamsters and non-human primates
Ground-glass opacitiesHumans, hamsters and non-human primates
Focal oedema and inflammationHumans, hamsters, ferrets and non-human primates
TransmissionHumans, hamsters, ferrets, cats and bats
SeroconversionHumans, mice, hamsters, ferrets, non-human primates and bats
Neutralizing antibody titresHumans, mice, hamsters, ferrets and non-human primates
T cell immunityHumans, mice, ferrets and non-human primates
Pro-inflammatory cytokinesHumans, mice and non-human primates
More severe disease in malesHumans, hamsters
More severe disease in older individualsHumans, hamsters and non-human primates
  1. Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animal models and humans. CNS, central nervous system; GI, gastrointestinal; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome.