a, Median MHW intensity (the SST anomaly associated with an MHW) from 1982 to 2019, calculated at each grid cell from all months with an active MHW. c, Median thermal displacement associated with MHWs. Thermal displacements can be in any direction (see Methods). White regions have seasonal or permanent sea ice cover. b, d, Zonal median values of MHW intensity and thermal displacement, with bands indicating the 25th–75th and 10th–90th percentile ranges. In contrast to Fig. 1, MHWs here were calculated without detrending SST anomalies relative to the 1982–2011 climatology.