a, Photograph showing the robot at the solid dispensing / cartridge station. The two cartridge hotels can hold up to 20 different solids; here, four cartridges are located in the hotel on the left. The door of the Quantos dispenser is opened using custom workflow software that interfaces with the command software that is supplied with the instrument before loading the correct solid dispensing cartridge into the instrument (Supplementary Video 3). Since the KUKA Mobile Robot is free-roaming and has an 820 mm reach, it would be simple to extend this modular approach to hundreds or even thousands of different solids given sufficient laboratory space. b, Photograph showing the KUKA Mobile Robot at the photolysis station (see also Supplementary Videos 3, 6). c, Photograph showing the KUKA Mobile Robot at the combined liquid handling/capping station. The robot can reach both the liquid stations and the Liverpool Inertization Capper-Crimper (LICC) station after six-point positioning, such that liquid addition, headspace inertization and capping can be carried out in a single coordinated process (see Supplementary Videos 3, 5), without any position recalibration. d, Photograph of the KUKA Mobile Robot parked at the headspace gas chromatography (GC) station. The gas chromatography instrument is a standard commercial instrument and was unmodified in this workflow.