a, Photograph showing robot loading samples into the photolysis station. b, Map of the laboratory generated by laser scanning showing positions of the eight stations; the orange crosshairs indicate recorded navigation locations and the robot position is indicated by the green rectangle. Inputs 1–3 are areas for the storage of empty vials or completed sample racks. GC, gas chromatography station. c, Robot loading empty sample vials into the solid-dispensing station before dispensing the photocatalyst. d, Loading the gas chromatography station with a new rack of samples for analysis. e, Storing racks of completed samples in Input Station 1 after gas chromatography analysis.