a, Schematic outline of the cytokine treatment experiments (left) and number of genes upregulated in each experiment (right). b, Genes upregulated in response to treatment with IFNα. c, d, Cytokine-induced changes in spleen endothelium (c) and liver fibroblasts (d), showing the percentage of LCMV-induced changes that are recapitulated by cytokine treatment (top left), enrichment for genes with unrealized epigenetic potential among the cytokine-induced genes (bottom left), and genes upregulated upon cytokine treatment (genes discussed in the text are in bold). Significant enrichments (two-sided Fisher’s exact test, adjusted P < 0.05) are labelled with an asterisk. Differential expression is based on a linear model (two-sided test) with multiple-testing correction (b–d). Sample size (all panels): n = 3 independent biological replicates.