a, Map of Mesoamerica, showing the locations of the sites mentioned in the text. Map topographic data from the NASA-JPL Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (https://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/). b, Chronology of Mesoamerica, indicating the construction dates of the Aguada Fénix main plateau and other major buildings listed in Extended Data Fig. 9c. Each bar shows the period in which a large portion of the building was constructed. Minor renovations and additions occurred outside of the indicated ranges.