# Extended Data Table 2 Parameters of the force balance model

1. *Uncertainty on the trench depth is taken to be ±0.2 km.
2. tUncertainty on the slope angle is taken to be ±0.2°.
3. ŧUncertainty on the crustal thickness is taken to be ±5 km.
4. §Mean values obtained from equation (6). The 1 standard deviation of the mean is ±30 kg m−3
5. ||Mean values obtained from equation (5). The 1 standard deviation of the mean is ±6.6 TN m−1, except for the Himalayas for which one standard deviation is ±4.8 TN m−1.
6. Data are from refs. 47,59,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73.