Extended Data Fig. 1: Experimental platform. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 1: Experimental platform.

From: Exploring dynamical phase transitions with cold atoms in an optical  cavity

Extended Data Fig. 1

a, An optical cavity is driven by a 689-nm coherent field that establishes an intra-cavity field \({\varOmega }_{{\rm{p}}}{{\rm{e}}}^{{\rm{i}}{\omega }_{{\rm{p}}}t}\), which is near resonance with the 1S0 to 3P1 transition in 88Sr. Inside the cavity, an ensemble of atoms is confined in a 1D optical lattice at 813 nm. Different lasers are applied for shelving excited-state atoms into long-lived metastable excited states, for freezing the system dynamics, for applying a radiation pressure force that pushes ground states in a direction transverse to the cavity axis, for optically pumping atoms from long lived metastable excited states back to the ground state, and for fluorescence imaging of atoms in the ground state. b, A typical fluorescence image captured on a CCD, showing the state-resolved imaging technique. The Ne excited state atoms that were shelved into 3P0,2 while the freeze/push beam was applied remain near the trapping region. The Ng ground-state atoms are pushed away from the trapping region. Based on their spatial location, the atoms assigned to be in the excited (ground) state are shown in false colour blue (orange). c, The relevant energy levels for 88Sr, the laser wavelengths and their functions. d, Experimental timing sequence and typical timescales.

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