a, Serum anti-native gliadin peptides and anti-DGP IgG levels in gluten-fed DQ8-Dd-villin-IL-15tg mice treated with TG2 inhibitors or vehicle (gluten) were compared by ELISA (gluten n = 17; gluten + TG2 inhibitors n = 13). In all cases, serum samples were obtained on day 30 after initiating the gluten challenge. b, Similar gene regulatory mechanisms underlie the development of coeliac disease in humans and DQ8-Dd-villin-IL-15tg mice. Contrast between the Gene Ontology terms enriched among genes induced by gluten challenge in DQ8-Dd-villin-IL-15tg mice (depicted in the form of −log10(P values) on the x axis) and the Gene Ontology terms enriched among genes differently expressed between patients with coeliac disease and healthy controls (depicted in the form of −log10(P values) on the x axis) in the epithelial compartment (a) or the lamina propria (b). The transcriptional comparison was made between the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria of gluten-fed DQ8-Dd-villin-IL-15tg mice and whole duodenal biopsies of patients with active coeliac disease. Data in a are mean values from four independent experiments. P value determined by paired, two-tailed, t-test).