a,b, Pb leakage of damaged PSCs in acidic water (pH = 4.2; 40 ml) at room temperature (a) and 50 °C (b). The samples with Pb absorbers have both sides of the device stack coated with the Pb-sequestrating films. All samples are covered by EVA film on the metal-electrode side. c,d, Effect of competitive ion Ca2+ (from CaCl2) on Pb sequestration by DMDP (c) and EDTMP–PEO (d) samples using 40 ml water containing 12 ppm Pb2+ and 0.1 ppm Ca2+ at room temperature. For the control tests, the water solution contains only Pb2+ ions. The error bars in a–d represent the standard deviations from three devices of each type of test condition. e, Photograph of homemade apparatus to study Pb leakage from damaged devices under flowing water to simulate rainfall conditions. The flowing water is continuously dripped on the damaged devices at a rate of 5 ml h−1 for 1.5 h facilitated by a syringe pump. The damaged devices are placed in the funnel with a tilt angle of 30° versus horizon. The rinsed water that contains Pb is collected in plastic tubes. f, Comparison of Pb-sequestration efficiency of devices under flowing water at room temperature. All devices are installed with Pb absorbers on both sides. Three devices for each type of test condition were measured.