a, Oceanic shark stock status—over time—being at levels of biomass or abundance above MSY (green lines) or below MSY (red lines). Data were obtained from refs. 24,25,28,51, and refs. 81–84,93,94,96,97 in the Supplementary Information. Dotted lines indicate that a stock is above or below the biomass or abundance levels producing MSY following the last stock assessment value. b, Number of published stock assessments for oceanic sharks and rays over time. c, Presentation of 14 stocks of oceanic sharks (no available stock assessments for oceanic rays), status (biomass or abundance over value at MSY) versus pressure (F/FMSY) in a Kobe plot style, for the last year with available data. Circles represent the unique values of each species if only one stock exists and represent the mean of the values of the different stocks (diamonds) when the species has multiple stocks. The plot is divided into four panels: the red panel (top left), with four stocks and three species, corresponds to stocks that are being overfished and where overfishing is occurring; the orange panel (top right), with one stock and one species, corresponds to stocks that are not overfished but where overfishing is occurring; the yellow panel (bottom left), with four stocks and three species, corresponds to stocks that are overfished but where overfishing is not occurring; and the green panel (bottom right), with five stocks and one species, corresponds to stocks that are not overfished and where overfishing is not occurring.