a, DNA damage quantification at ACTB and CASP16P termination pause sites following ACTB or CASP16P sdRNA overexpression (OE) using γ-H2AX ChIP qPCR analyses. The ChIP signal reflects the mean ± s.e.m. fold change over the untransfected condition (control). n = 4–6 biological replicates. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD test and compared to the relevant control cells. b, Model of sdRNA-mediated DNA damage repair at R-loop-positive pause sites in proliferating and quiescent cells.