a, ADMIXTURE plots for k = 12 and k = 14 illustrating the identification of 12 reference groups. b, Proposed modern human migration route into southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum with potential locations of Denisovan admixture (yellow asterisks). Green indicates the above water landmass at the glacial maximum and white outlines indicate present-day shorelines. c, Estimates of Denisovan ancestry in south Asians, stratified by social/cultural group and language. IE, Indo-European. Adivasi Indo-European, n = 30; Adivasi non-Indo-European, n = 196; caste Indo-European, n = 68; caste non-Indo-European, n = 155; upper caste Indo-European, n = 49; upper caste non-Indo-European, n = 19; Pakistani Indo-European, n = 79. The centre line indicates the median; box limits show the middle 50%; whiskers extend two standard deviations from the mean; points are outliers.