Ninety per cent of baryons are located outside galaxies, either in the circumgalactic or intergalactic medium1,2. Theory points to galactic winds as the primary source of the enriched and massive circumgalactic medium3,4,5,6. Winds from compact starbursts have been observed to flow to distances somewhat greater than ten kiloparsecs7,8,9,10, but the circumgalactic medium typically extends beyond a hundred kiloparsecs3,4. Here we report optical integral field observations of the massive but compact galaxy SDSS J211824.06+001729.4. The oxygen [O ii] lines at wavelengths of 3726 and 3729 angstroms reveal an ionized outflow spanning 80 by 100 square kiloparsecs, depositing metal-enriched gas at 10,000 kelvin through an hourglass-shaped nebula that resembles an evacuated and limb-brightened bipolar bubble. We also observe neutral gas phases at temperatures of less than 10,000 kelvin reaching distances of 20 kiloparsecs and velocities of around 1,500 kilometres per second. This multi-phase outflow is probably driven by bursts of star formation, consistent with theory11,12.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Raw data generated at the Keck Observatory are available at the Keck Observatory Archive (https://koa.ipac.caltech.edu/) following the standard 18-month proprietary period after the date of observation. This paper makes use of the ALMA data ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.01072.S and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.01318.S, which are available at the ALMA Science Archive (https://almascience.nrao.edu/aq/). Some of the data presented here were obtained from the SDSS (https://www.sdss.org). The Hubble Space Telescope observations described here were obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive (https://hla.stsci.edu/). Derived data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.
Shull, J. M., Smith, B. D. & Danforth, C. W. The baryon census in a multiphase intergalactic medium: 30% of the baryons may still be missing. Astrophys. J. 759, 23 (2012).
Tumlinson, J., Peeples, M. S. & Werk, J. K. The circumgalactic medium. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 55, 389–432 (2017).
Tumlinson, J. et al. The large, oxygen-rich halos of star-forming galaxies are a major reservoir of galactic metals. Science 334, 948–952 (2011).
Werk, J. K. et al. The COS-Halos survey: physical conditions and baryonic mass in the low-redshift circumgalactic medium. Astrophys. J. 792, 8 (2014).
Hummels, C. B., Bryan, G. L., Smith, B. D. & Turk, M. J. Constraints on hydrodynamical subgrid models from quasar absorption line studies of the simulated circumgalactic medium. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 430, 1548–1565 (2013).
Ford, A. B. et al. Hydrogen and metal line absorption around low-redshift galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 89–112 (2013).
Geach, J. E. et al. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy. Nature 516, 68–70 (2014).
Yoshida, M. et al. Giant Hα nebula surrounding the starburst merger NGC 6240. Astrophys. J. 820, 48 (2016).
Falgarone, E. et al. Large turbulent reservoirs of cold molecular gas around high-redshift starburst galaxies. Nature 548, 430–433 (2017).
Geach, J. E. et al. Violent quenching: molecular gas blown to 1000 km s−1 during a major merger. Astrophys. J. 864, L1 (2018).
Lochhaas, C., Thompson, T. A., Quataert, E. & Weinberg, D. H. Fast winds drive slow shells: a model for the circumgalactic medium as galactic wind-driven bubbles. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 481, 1873–1896 (2018).
Hani, M. H., Sparre, M., Ellison, S. L., Torrey, P. & Vogelsberger, M. Galaxy mergers moulding the circum-galactic medium I. The impact of a major merger. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 475, 1160–1176 (2018).
Diamond-Stanic, A. M. et al. High-velocity outflows without AGN feedback: Eddington-limited star formation in compact massive galaxies. Astrophys. J. 755, L26 (2012).
Sell, P. H. et al. Massive compact galaxies with high-velocity outflows: morphological analysis and constraints on AGN activity. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 441, 3417–3443 (2014).
Morrissey, P. et al. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager Integral Field Spectrograph. Astrophys. J. 864, 93 (2018).
Shopbell, P. L. & Bland-Hawthorn, J. The asymmetric wind in M82. Astrophys. J. 493, 129–153 (1998).
Harrison, C. M. et al. Storm in a “Teacup”: a radio-quiet quasar with ≈10 kpc radio-emitting bubbles and extreme gas kinematics. Astrophys. J. 800, 45 (2015).
Bridge, J. S. et al. Physical and morphological properties of [O ii] emitting galaxies in the HETDEX pilot Survey. Astrophys. J. 799, 205 (2015).
Yuma, S. et al. Systematic Survey for [O ii], [O iii], and Hα blobs at z = 0.1–1.5: the implication for evolution of galactic-scale outflow. Astrophys. J. 841, 93 (2017).
Epinat, B. et al. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z ∼ 0.7. Astron. Astrophys. 609, A40 (2018).
Johnson, S. D. et al. Galaxy and quasar fueling caught in the act from the intragroup to the interstellar medium. Astrophys. J. 869, L1 (2018).
Zhu, G., Moustakas, J. & Blanton, M. R. The [O ii] λ3727 luminosity function at z ∼ 1. Astrophys. J. 701, 86–93 (2009).
Kalfountzou, E., Jarvis, M. J., Bonfield, D. G. & Hardcastle, M. J. Star formation in high-redshift quasars: excess [O ii] emission in the radio-loud population. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 2401–2410 (2012).
Pulsoni, C. et al. The extended Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (ePN.S) early-type galaxy survey: the kinematic diversity of stellar halos and the relation between halo transition scale and stellar mass. Astron. Astrophys. 618, A94 (2018).
Rubin, K. H. R. et al. Low-ionization line emission from a starburst galaxy: a new probe of a galactic-scale outflow. Astrophys. J. 728, 55 (2011).
Prochaska, J. X., Kasen, D. & Rubin, K. Simple models of metal-line absorption and emission from cool gas outflows. Astrophys. J. 734, 24 (2011).
Behroozi, P. S., Conroy, C. & Wechsler, R. H. A comprehensive analysis of uncertainties affecting the stellar mass-halo mass relation for 0 < z < 4. Astrophys. J. 717, 379–403 (2010).
Villar-Martín, M. et al. A 100 kpc nebula associated with the ‘Teacup’ fading quasar. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 474, 2302–2312 (2018).
Kim, D. C. et al. Hubble Space Telescope ACS imaging of the GOALS sample: quantitative structural properties of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with L IR > 1011.4 L ⊙. Astrophys. J. 768, 102 (2013).
Thompson, T. A., Quataert, E., Zhang, D. & Weinberg, D. H. An origin for multiphase gas in galactic winds and haloes. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 455, 1830–1844 (2016).
Gronke, M. & Oh, S. P. The growth and entrainment of cold gas in a hot wind. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 480, L111–L115 (2018).
Tremonti, C. A., Moustakas, J. & Diamond-Stanic, A. M. The discovery of 1000 km s−1 outflows in massive poststarburst galaxies at z = 0.6. Astrophys. J. 663, L77–L80 (2007).
Rupke, D. S. N. IFSRED: data reduction for integral field spectrographs. Astrophys. Source Code Library ascl:1409.004 (2014).
York, D. G. et al. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: technical summary. Astron. J. 120, 1579–1587 (2000).
Cappellari, M. & Copin, Y. Adaptive spatial binning of integral-field spectroscopic data using Voronoi tessellations. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 342, 345–354 (2003).
Rupke, D. S. N. IFSFIT: spectral fitting for integral field spectrographs. Astrophys. Source Code Library ascl: 1409.005 (2014).
Schlafly, E. F. & Finkbeiner, D. P. Measuring reddening with Sloan Digital Sky Survey stellar spectra and recalibrating SFD. Astrophys. J. 737, 103 (2011).
Planck Collaboration. Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters. Preprint at https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.06209 (2018).
Groves, B. A., Dopita, M. A. & Sutherland, R. S. Dusty, radiation pressure-dominated photoionization. II. Multiwavelength emission line diagnostics for narrow-line regions. Astrophys. J. 153 (Suppl.), 75–91 (2004).
Allen, M. G., Groves, B. A., Dopita, M. A., Sutherland, R. S. & Kewley, L. J. The MAPPINGS III library of fast radiative shock models. Astrophys. J. 178 (Suppl.), 20–55 (2008).
Gilli, R. et al. The X-ray to [Ne v] 3426 flux ratio: discovering heavily obscured AGN in the distant Universe. Astron. Astrophys. 519, A92 (2010).
Vergani, D. et al. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). AGN feedback in [Ne v] emitters. Astron. Astrophys. 620, A193 (2018).
Best, P. N., Röttgering, H. J. A. & Longair, M. S. Ionization, shocks and evolution of the emission-line gas of distant 3CR radio galaxies. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 311, 23–36 (2000).
Allen, M. G., Dopita, M. A. & Tsvetanov, Z. I. Ultraviolet diagnostics for the emission-line gas in active galaxies. Astrophys. J. 493, 571–582 (1998).
Reynaldi, V. & Feinstein, C. The fingerprints of photoionization and shock-ionization in two CSS sources. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 455, 2242–2252 (2016).
Bolatto, A. D. et al. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind. Nature 499, 450–453 (2013).
Graham, A. W. & Driver, S. P. A concise reference to (projected) Sérsic R1/n quantities, including concentration, profile slopes, Petrosian indices, and Kron magnitudes. Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 22, 118–127 (2005).
Leja, J., Johnson, B. D., Conroy, C., van Dokkum, P. G. & Byler, N. Deriving physical properties from broadband photometry with Prospector: description of the model and a demonstration of its accuracy using 129 galaxies in the local Universe. Astrophys. J. 837, 170 (2017).
Conroy, C., Gunn, J. E. & White, M. The propagation of uncertainties in stellar population synthesis modeling. I. The relevance of uncertain aspects of stellar evolution and the initial mass function to the derived physical properties of galaxies. Astrophys. J. 699, 486–506 (2009).
Conroy, C. & Gunn, J. E. FSPS: Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis. Astrophys. Source Code Library ascl:1010.043 (2010).
Morrissey, P. et al. The calibration and data products of GALEX. Astrophys. J. 173 (Suppl.), 682–697 (2007).
Werner, M. W. et al. The Spitzer Space Telescope Mission. Astrophys. J. 154 (Suppl.), 1–9 (2004).
Lang, D., Hogg, D. W. & Schlegel, D. J. WISE photometry for 400 million SDSS sources. Astron. J. 151, 36 (2016).
Charlot, S. & Fall, S. M. A simple model for the absorption of starlight by dust in galaxies. Astrophys. J. 539, 718–731 (2000).
Draine, B. T. & Li, A. Infrared emission from interstellar dust. IV. The silicate-graphite-PAH model in the post-Spitzer era. Astrophys. J. 657, 810–837 (2007).
Stern, D. et al. Mid-infrared selection of active galactic nuclei with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. I. Characterizing WISE-selected active galactic nuclei in COSMOS. Astrophys. J. 753, 30 (2012).
Satyapal, S. et al. Buried AGNs in advanced mergers: mid-infrared color selection as a dual AGN candidate finder. Astrophys. J. 848, 126 (2017).
Blecha, L., Snyder, G. F., Satyapal, S. & Ellison, S. L. The power of infrared AGN selection in mergers: a theoretical study. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 478, 3056–3071 (2018).
Salim, S., Boquien, M. & Lee, J. C. Dust attenuation curves in the local Universe: demographics and new laws for star-forming galaxies and high-redshift analogs. Astrophys. J. 859, 11 (2018).
Cappellari, M. & Emsellem, E. Parametric recovery of line-of-sight velocity distributions from absorption-line spectra of galaxies via penalized likelihood. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacif. 116, 138–147 (2004).
Cappellari, M. Improving the full spectrum fitting method: accurate convolution with Gauss-Hermite functions. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 466, 798–811 (2017).
Chabrier, G. The Galactic disk mass function: reconciliation of the Hubble Space Telescope and nearby determinations. Astrophys. J. 586, L133–L136 (2003).
Kauffmann, G. et al. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 346, 1055–1077 (2003).
Kewley, L. J., Groves, B., Kauffmann, G. & Heckman, T. The host galaxies and classification of active galactic nuclei. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 961–976 (2006).
We thank M. Gronke for comments on the manuscript and C. Conroy for providing the C3K models before publication. D.S.N.R. is supported in part by the J. Lester Crain Chair of Physics at Rhodes College. J.E.G. is supported by the Royal Society. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under a collaborative grant (AST-1814233, 1813299, 1813365, 1814159 and 1813702). We acknowledge support from NASA award number SOF-06-0191 issued by the Universities Space Research Association. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. ALMA is a partnership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO, representing its member states), NSF (USA) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (Japan), together with the National Research Council (Canada), the Ministry of Science and Technology and Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Taiwan), and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, the Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) / National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. NRAO is a facility of the NSF operated under cooperative agreement by AUI. The Hubble Legacy Archive is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA). Some of the data presented here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the NSF, the US Department of Energy, NASA, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Extended data figures and tables
In a, the green solid line demarcates the edge of the z = 0 pure star-formation locus63; in both panels, blue long-dashed lines denote the limits of young star photo-ionization64; and in b, the green short-dashed line separates Seyfert galaxies (AGNs) from low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs)64. Error bars are 1σ. The red narrow component is consistent with star formation at near-solar metallicity, while the broad, outflowing component is ionized by either an AGN or high-velocity shocks.
Tracers are shown as coloured lines, while the CO(2–1) profile is shaded in grey. The data are smoothed by three pixels and the coloured shadings indicate 1σ errors on the line fluxes. The ultraviolet–optical nebular lines are shown with the correct relative fluxes (uncorrected for reddening in the host galaxy), while the CO(2–1) line is arbitrarily scaled. The spatially integrated velocity profiles probe different gas phases and spatial scales but show remarkable overall consistency.
Profiles are averaged and then plotted versus distance from the galaxy nucleus along circular radii (black); the short axis of the nebula, or east-to-west axis (blue); and the long axis of the nebula, or north-to-south axis (purple). The averages are taken in directions perpendicular to these: in azimuth around the nucleus; along the long axis; and along the short axis, respectively. The short and long axis profiles are shifted upward in flux so that the three profiles match in the lowest distance bin. Errors are standard errors of the mean. Plotted as dashed lines are the stellar half-light radius (orange), the [O ii] half-light radius within 50 kpc (black), and the [O ii] maximum radius along the short and long axes (blue and purple).
The best-fit model and 1σ error are shown with a black line and grey shading; observed fluxes with 1σ errors (usually smaller than the symbols) are yellow circles; and model fluxes are open cyan boxes. Flux is given in AB magnitudes and observed-frame wavelengths in micrometres. The posterior probability P(M) for stellar mass M is shown in the inset.
Spectral data from SDSS and the MMT and 1σ errors are shown as the black line and grey shading. SDSS ugriz photometry and 1σ errors are the cyan squares and grey vertical bars. The best-fit model is a magenta line; the stellar population components summed to produce this model are shown as coloured lines, with ages as shown. SSP, simple stellar population.
About this article
Cite this article
Rupke, D.S.N., Coil, A., Geach, J.E. et al. A 100-kiloparsec wind feeding the circumgalactic medium of a massive compact galaxy. Nature 574, 643–646 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1686-1
This article is cited by
The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review (2020)