The breakeven cost is the incentive, measured in 2015 US$ per tonne of CO2, that is required to make the pathway economic. Negative breakeven costs indicate that the pathway is already profitable, without any incentive to utilize CO2 (such as a tax on CO2 emissions in cases in which utilization avoids emissions, or a subsidy for CO2 removed from the atmosphere in the case in which utilization removes CO2). Utilization estimates are based on 2050 projections. Many technologies are in the very early stages of development, and cost optimization via research and development could substantially change these estimates. Colour shadings reflect the TRLs of the pathways, which again vary markedly within each pathway. Asterisks denote the storage duration offered by each pathway: days or months (*) decades (**) or centuries or more (***). See Supplementary Materials for further details.