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Carrier-resolved photo-Hall effect

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Abstract

Majority and minority carrier properties such as type, density and mobility represent fundamental yet difficult to access parameters governing semiconductor device performance. Obtaining this information simultaneously under light illumination would unlock many critical parameters vital for optoelectronic devices and solar cells, but realizing this goal has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate a carrier-resolved photo-Hall technique that rests on a new equation relating hole–electron Hall mobility difference (ΔμH), Hall coefficient (H) and conductivity (σ): ΔμH = d(σ2H)/dσ. This discovery, together with advances in a.c.-field Hall measurement using a rotating parallel dipole line system, allows us to unlock a host of critical parameters for both majority and minority carriers such as recombination lifetime, diffusion length and recombination coefficient. We successfully apply this technique to a variety of solar absorbers, including high-performance lead-iodide-based perovskites. By mapping the Hall data against varying light intensities, unprecedented simultaneous access to these parameters is demonstrated. This information, buried in the photo-Hall measurement1,2, has been elusive for 140 years since the original discovery of the Hall effect3. Beyond historical significance, the applications of simultaneous majority/minority carrier measurement are broad, including photovoltaics and other optoelectronic devices.

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Correspondence to Oki Gunawan or Byungha Shin.

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