Graphene and two-dimensional materials for silicon technology


The development of silicon semiconductor technology has produced breakthroughs in electronics—from the microprocessor in the late 1960s to early 1970s, to automation, computers and smartphones—by downscaling the physical size of devices and wires to the nanometre regime. Now, graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials offer prospects of unprecedented advances in device performance at the atomic limit, and a synergistic combination of 2D materials with silicon chips promises a heterogeneous platform to deliver massively enhanced potential based on silicon technology. Integration is achieved via three-dimensional monolithic construction of multifunctional high-rise 2D silicon chips, enabling enhanced performance by exploiting the vertical direction and the functional diversification of the silicon platform for applications in opto-electronics and sensing. Here we review the opportunities, progress and challenges of integrating atomically thin materials with silicon-based nanosystems, and also consider the prospects for computational and non-computational applications.

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Fig. 1: Potential applications of 2DMs and modern transistor devices.
Fig. 2: Optoelectronic applications.
Fig. 3: Examples of 2D transistor devices and transport characteristics.
Fig. 4: Examples of the use of 2DMs in emerging memory types.
Fig. 5: Integrated graphene and 2D photodevices.
Fig. 6: Graphene sensors integrated with Si read-out electronics.
Fig. 7: Optical characterization of 2DMs suitable for inline metrology.
Fig. 8: Schematic visualization of the technology roadmap for the introduction of 2DMs in CMOS-compatible technology.


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D.A. acknowledges support from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) through the US Army Research Office. C.-H.W. and H.-S.P.W. acknowledge support from the NSF, AFOSR MURI, the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) STARnet FAME and SRC JUMP ASCENT, and member companies of the Stanford SystemX Alliance and the Stanford Non-Volatile Memory Technology Research Initiative (NMTRI). L.-J.L. and H.-S.P.W. acknowledge substantial management support from TSMC. C.H. acknowledges support from the Logic Imec Industrial Affiliation Program and funding from the Graphene Flagship initiative. F.H.L.K. acknowledges financial support from the Government of Catalonia through an SGR grant (2017, 1656), from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the “Severo Ochoa” Programme for Centres of Excellence in R&D (SEV-2015-0522), from Fundacio Cellex Barcelona, and from the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya. Furthermore, the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 785219, Graphene Flagship.

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All authors contributed to the writing of this Review, which was led by D.A. and F.H.L.K.

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Correspondence to Deji Akinwande.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Nature thanks Jeehwan Kim and Frank Schwierz for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Akinwande, D., Huyghebaert, C., Wang, C. et al. Graphene and two-dimensional materials for silicon technology. Nature 573, 507–518 (2019).

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