a, Individual channel electrocorticography signals (mean high-gamma frequency-filtered power) in each of healthy-appearing, tumour core, and tumour-infiltrated brain (n = 23, 29 and 51 total channels, respectively) across three human subjects, as in Fig. 5a, b. Data shown are mean ± s.e.m. ****P < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc analysis. b, Working model of glioma integration into neural circuity, with hyperexcitability of neurons (grey) exacerbating activity-dependent mechanisms of glioma (green) growth. (1) neuron-to-glioma synapses (synaptic vesicles in red; AMPARs in grey); (2) inward potassium (K+) current (blue; potassium channel in grey); (3) gap junction (white) coupling in glioma amplifies current.