a, Template built on the cranium of A. africanus (Sts 5). Templates with landmarks (red), curve semilandmarks (light blue) and surface semilandmarks (yellow) were digitized on Sts 5. b, Template configuration with names of landmarks and curves numbers (labels are related to Supplementary Note 3). c, The same set of (semi)landmarks on the MRD-sym cranium. d, TPS interpolation of the Sts 5 cranium, warped to MRD-sym (blue and grey, respectively). e–h, MRD-sym with the integrated missing parts (blue) isolated from the resulting warped surfaces obtained by the deformation of Sts 5 (shown here as an example) in anterior (e), left lateral (f), inferior (g) and superior (h) views. Scale bar, 4 cm.