a, Cladogram resulting from the character matrix of ref. 27, with the addition of MRD and previously described A. anamensis specimens (combined as a single OTU, K-combined). Parsimony analysis returned a single most-parsimonious tree (l = 196, C = 0.71, R = 0.70). b, Cladogram resulting from the character matrix of ref. 33 (and references therein) with the addition of the combined MRD–A. anamensis OTU (S&G-combined). This analysis returned a single most-parsimonious tree (l = 429, C = 0.47, R = 0.66) with identical topology. The position of the combined MRD–A. anamensis OTU reinforces accepted relationships and is consistent with geochronology. c–g, Cladograms resulting from analyses in which MRD is treated as a separate OTU (that is, an OTU bearing observations primarily for cranial characters, but very few dental characters and no mandibular characters.) c, d, Equally parsimonious cladograms from the K-separate analysis (l = 196, C = 0.71, R = 0.68). e–g, Equally parsimonious cladograms from the S&G-separate analysis (l = 430, C = 0.47, R = 0.66). The ‘pre-2004 A. anamensis’ OTU in e–g bears observations primarily on dentognathic characters. Character scores for MRD are provided in Supplementary Table 1, sheets 1 and 2. Regardless of whether cranial or dentognathic characters are considered, the phylogenetic placement of MRD and the previously known A. anamensis sample remains stable relative to other hominins. h, i, Cladograms from the K-combined and S&G-combined analyses (as in a and b), with apomorphies added to the cladograms to illustrate the implied pattern of evolutionary change. The character states reconstructed at nodes A and B provide the reference for identifying A. anamensis and A. afarensis apomorphies, which are shown here as rectangles containing their abbreviated character labels. Characters in red, orange, gold and green describe similar morphology and appear in both previously published studies27,33. See Supplementary Note 9 and Supplementary Table 1.