Extended Data Table 1 Vehicle characterization

From: Untethered flight of an insect-sized flapping-wing microscale aerial vehicle

  1. a, Vehicle parameter changes (compared with SDAB1). b, Vehicle performance. Power values (Pcalc,IV and Pcalc,CV2f) are calculated based on actuator capacitance and wing stroke velocity35. Vpp,flat is the peak-to-peak voltage for the flattened sinusoid drive waveform. L2D, lift-to-drag ratio. *Values that were also measured directly for verification. †η ≡ FL/PIV. ‡‘Ideal’ η/η0 = υeff,0/υeff. Iframe and Imem are the inertias of the carbon fibre frame (leading edge and spars) and polyester membrane, respectively. All other parameters are defined in the text.