Extended Data Fig. 3: Illustration of torque implementation. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 3: Illustration of torque implementation.

From: Untethered flight of an insect-sized flapping-wing microscale aerial vehicle

Extended Data Fig. 3

ac, Pitch torque (a), roll torque (b) and yaw torque (c) (all depicted with ‘top-down’ views of the wing strokes), in the X-Wing versus the previous two-wing design. The red and green squares in the X-Wing design indicate that each pair of wings is fixed at 90 degrees apart. Although the four-wing design brings the mean centre of pressure of each wing pair closer to the body for pitch and roll (indicated by the length of the dashed lines), it also produces greater forces for the same flapping motion, allowing for similar control authority.

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