Extended Data Fig. 8: Ripples and roughening in ultrathin freestanding films. | Nature

Extended Data Fig. 8: Ripples and roughening in ultrathin freestanding films.

From: Freestanding crystalline oxide perovskites down to the monolayer limit

Extended Data Fig. 8

ae, STEM-HAADF cross-sectional images of BFO freestanding films showing flat (ac) and buckled shape (d, e) in thicker (ten unit cells) and thinner (four unit cells) freestanding films, respectively. For thicker freestanding films, all atomic columns can be sharply resolved in a single image since their zone axes were well aligned with the beam direction (b) and a mistilt of the lattice of just 1° leads to a blurred image (c). For thinner freestanding films, higher-magnification images (e) taken with different tilting angles (1° per step) indicate that the film is a single crystal but twisted owing to the ripples. The scale bars in the low-magnification images (a, d) are 20 nm and the scale bars in the enlarged images (b, c, e) are 5 nm.

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