Intraplate magmatic provinces found away from plate boundaries provide direct sampling of the composition and heterogeneity of the Earth’s mantle. The chemical heterogeneities that have been observed in the mantle are usually attributed to recycling during subduction1,2,3, which allows for the addition of volatiles and incompatible elements into the mantle. Although many intraplate volcanoes sample deep-mantle reservoirs—possibly at the core–mantle boundary4—not all intraplate volcanoes are deep-rooted5, and reservoirs in other, shallower boundary layers are likely to participate in magma generation. Here we present evidence that suggests Bermuda sampled a previously unknown mantle domain, characterized by silica-undersaturated melts that are substantially enriched in incompatible elements and volatiles, and a unique, extreme isotopic signature. To our knowledge, Bermuda records the most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb isotopes that have been documented in an ocean basin (with 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 19.9–21.7) using high-precision methods. Together with low 207Pb/204Pb ratios (15.5–15.6) and relatively invariant Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopes, the data suggest that this source must be less than 650 million years old. We therefore interpret the Bermuda source as a previously unknown, transient mantle reservoir that resulted from the recycling and storage of incompatible elements and volatiles6,7,8 in the transition zone (between the upper and lower mantle), aided by the fractionation of lead in a mineral that is stable only in this boundary layer, such as K-hollandite9,10. We suggest that recent recycling into the transition zone, related to subduction events during the formation of Pangea, is the reason why this reservoir has only been found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our geodynamic models suggest that this boundary layer was sampled by disturbances related to mantle flow. Seismic studies and diamond inclusions6,7 have shown that recycled materials can be stored in the transition zone11. For the first time, to our knowledge, we show geochemical evidence that this storage is key to the generation of extreme isotopic domains that were previously thought to be related only to deep recycling.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Geochemical data for Bermuda lavas can be found online at the EarthChem database at https://doi.org/10.1594/IEDA/111282. All geochemical data—including olivine-spinel thermometry, magmatic water calculations and Pb-isotope modelling—can be found in the Supplementary Information.
Chauvel, C., Lewin, E., Carpentier, M., Arndt, N. T. & Marini, J.-C. Role of recycled oceanic basalt and sediment in generating the Hf–Nd mantle array. Nat. Geosci. 1, 64–67 (2008).
Hofmann, A. Mantle geochemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature 385, 219–229 (1997).
Zindler, A. & Hart, S. Chemical geodynamics. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 14, 493–571 (1986).
Rizo, H. et al. Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts. Science 352, 809–812 (2016).
Anderson, D. L. & King, S. D. Driving the Earth machine? Science 346, 1184–1185 (2014).
Pearson, D. G. et al. Hydrous mantle transition zone indicated by ringwoodite included within diamond. Nature 507, 221–224 (2014).
Tschauner, O. et al. Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle. Science 359, 1136–1139 (2018).
Schmandt, B., Jacobsen, S. D., Becker, T. W., Liu, Z. & Dueker, K. G. Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle. Science 344, 1265–1268 (2014).
Grassi, D., Schmidt, M. W. & Günther, D. Element partitioning during carbonated pelite melting at 8, 13 and 22 GPa and the sediment signature in the EM mantle components. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 327–328, 84–96 (2012).
Wang, X. J. et al. Mantle transition zone-derived EM1 component beneath NE China: Geochemical evidence from Cenozoic potassic basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 465, 16–28 (2017).
Ballmer, M. D., Schmerr, N. C., Nakagawa, T. & Ritsema, J. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1000-km depth. Sci. Adv. 1, e1500815 (2015).
Vogt, P. R. & Jung, W.-Y. in Plates, Plumes and Planetary Processes Vol. 430 (eds Foulger, G. R. & Jurdy, D. M.) 553–591 (Geological Society of America, 2007).
Morgan, W. J. Hotspot tracks and the early rifting of the Atlantic. Tectonophysics 94, 123–139 (1983).
Benoit, M. H., Long, M. D. & King, S. D. Anomalously thin transition zone and apparently isotropic upper mantle beneath Bermuda: Evidence for upwelling. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 4282–4291 (2013).
King, S. D. & Anderson, D. L. Edge-driven convection. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 160, 289–296 (1998).
Simmons, N. A., Forte, A. M. & Grand, S. P. Thermochemical structure and dynamics of the African super-plume. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02301 (2007).
Reynolds, P. & Aumento, F. Deep Drill 1972. Potassium–argon dating of the Bermuda drill core. Can. J. Earth Sci. 11, 1269–1273 (1974).
Janney, P. E. & Castillo, P. R. Geochemistry of the oldest Atlantic oceanic crust suggests mantle plume involvement in the early history of the central Atlantic Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 192, 291–302 (2001).
Sobolev, A. V. et al. The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle-derived melts. Science 316, 412–417 (2007).
Weiss, Y., Class, C., Goldstein, S. L. & Hanyu, T. Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions. Nature 537, 666–670 (2016).
Coogan, L., Saunders, A. & Wilson, R. Aluminum-in-olivine thermometry of primitive basalts: evidence of an anomalously hot mantle source for large igneous provinces. Chem. Geol. 368, 1–10 (2014).
Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M. M. & Smith, N. D. Partial melting experiments of peridotite + CO2 at 3 GPa and genesis of alkalic ocean island basalts. J. Petrol. 48, 2093–2124 (2007).
Dasgupta, R. et al. Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth’s upper mantle. Nature 493, 211–215 (2013).
Kogiso, T. & Hirschmann, M. M. Partial melting experiments of bimineralic eclogite and the role of recycled mafic oceanic crust in the genesis of ocean island basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 249, 188–199 (2006).
Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M. M. & Stalker, K. Immiscible transition from carbonate-rich to silicate-rich melts in the 3 GPa melting interval of eclogite + CO2 and genesis of silica-undersaturated ocean island lavas. J. Petrol. 47, 647–671 (2006).
Saal, A. E., Hart, S. R., Shimizu, N., Hauri, E. H. & Layne, G. D. Pb isotopic variability in melt inclusions from oceanic island basalts, polynesia. Science 282, 1481–1484 (1998).
Novella, D. et al. The distribution of H2O between silicate melt and nominally anhydrous peridotite and the onset of hydrous melting in the deep upper mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 400, 1–13 (2014).
O’Leary, J. A., Gaetani, G. A. & Hauri, E. H. The effect of tetrahedral Al3+ on the partitioning of water between clinopyroxene and silicate melt. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 297, 111–120 (2010).
Hauri, E. SIMS analysis of volatiles in silicate glasses, 2: isotopes and abundances in Hawaiian melt inclusions. Chem. Geol. 183, 115–141 (2002).
Dixon, J. E., Leist, L., Langmuir, C. & Schilling, J.-G. Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Nature 420, 385–389 (2002).
Castillo, P. R. A proposed new approach and unified solution to old Pb paradoxes. Lithos 252–253, 32–40 (2016).
Chauvel, C., Hofmann, A. W. & Vidal, P. HIMU-EM: The French Polynesian connection. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 110, 99–119 (1992).
Whalen, L. et al. Supercontinental inheritance and its influence on supercontinental breakup: the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province and the breakup of Pangea. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 16, 3532–3554 (2015).
Sheng, J., Liao, J. & Gerya, T. Numerical modeling of deep oceanic slab dehydration: implications for the possible origin of far field intra-contental volcanoes in northeastern China. J. Asian Earth Sci. 117, 328–336 (2016).
Ryan, W. B. F. et al. Global Multi-resolution Topography synthesis. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 10, Q03014 (2009).
Rowe, M. P. An Explanation of the Geology of Bermuda (Bermuda Government, Ministry of the Environment, 1998).
Rice, P. D., Hall, J. M. & Opdyke, N. D. Deep Drill 1972: a paleomagnetic study of the Bermuda Seamount. Can. J. Earth Sci. 17, 232–243 (1980).
Mazza, S. E. et al. Volcanoes of the passive margin: the youngest magmatic event in eastern North America. Geology 42, 483–486 (2014).
Kelley, K. A., Plank, T., Ludden, J. & Staudigel, H. Composition of altered oceanic crust at ODP Sites 801 and 1149. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, 8910 (2003).
Gazel, E. et al. Lithosphere versus asthenosphere mantle sources at the Big Pine Volcanic Field, California. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, Q0AK06 (2012).
He, Z. et al. A flux-free fusion technique for rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks by LA-ICP-MS. Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 40, 5–21 (2015).
Willbold, M. & Jochum, K. P. Multi-element isotope dilution sector field ICP-MS: a precise technique for the analysis of geological materials and its application to geological reference materials. Geostand. Geoanal. Res. 29, 63–82 (2005).
Pearce, J. & Peate, D. Tectonic implications of the composition of volcanic arc magmas. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 23, 251–285 (1995).
Johnson, K. T. Experimental determination of partition coefficients for rare earth and high-field-strength elements between clinopyroxene, garnet, and basaltic melt at high pressures. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 133, 60–68 (1998).
Batanova, V. G., Sobolev, A. V. & Kuzmin, D. V. Trace element analysis of olivine: high precision analytical method for JEOL JXA-8230 electron probe microanalyser. Chem. Geol. 419, 149–157 (2015).
Prytulak, J. & Elliott, T. TiO2 enrichment in ocean island basalts. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 263, 388–403 (2007).
Dasgupta, R. & Hirschmann, M. M. Melting in the Earth’s deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide. Nature 440, 659–662 (2006).
Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M. M. & Withers, A. C. Deep global cycling of carbon constrained by the solidus of anhydrous, carbonated eclogite under upper mantle conditions. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 227, 73–85 (2004).
Dasgupta, R., Hirschmann, M. M. & Stalker, K. Immiscible transition from carbonate- rich to silicate-rich melts in the 3 GPa melting interval of eclogite + CO2 and genesis of silica-undersaturated ocean island lavas. J. Petrol. 47, 647–671 (2006).
Pilet, S., Baker, M. B. & Stolper, E. M. Metasomatized lithosphere and the origin of alkaline lavas. Science 320, 916–919 (2008).
Kawabata, H. et al. The petrology and geochemistry of St. Helena alkali basalts: evaluation of the oceanic crust-recycling model for HIMU OIB. J. Petrol. 52, 791–838 (2011).
Mirnejad, H. & Bell, K. Origin and source evolution of the Leucite Hills lamproites: evidence from Sr–Nd–Pb–O isotopic compositions. J. Petrol. 47, 2463–2489 (2006).
Hofmann, A.W. in Treatisese on Geochemistry 2nd edn, Vol. 3 (eds Holland, H. D. & Turekian, K. K.) 67–101 (Elsevier, Oxford, 2014)
Johnson, E. A. & Rossman, G. R. A survey of hydrous species and concentrations in igneous feldspars. Am. Min. 89, 586–600 (2004).
Rossman, G. R., Bell, D. R. & Ihinger, P. D. Quantitative analysis of trace OH in garnet and pyroxenes. Am. Min. 80, 465–474 (1995).
Plank, T., Kelley, K. A., Zimmer, M. M., Hauri, E. H. & Wallace, P. J. Why do mafic arc magmas contain ∼4wt% water on average? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 364, 168–179 (2013).
Bizimis, M., Salters, V. J., Garcia, M. O. & Norman, M. D. The composition and distribution of the rejuvenated component across the Hawaiian plume: Hf, Nd, Sr, Pb isotope systematics of Kaula lavas and pyroxenite xenoliths. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 4458–4478 (2013).
Khanna, T. C., Bizimis, M., Yogodzinski, G. M. & Mallick, S. Hafnium–neodymium isotope systematics of the 2.7 Ga Gadwal greenstone terrane, Eastern Dharwar craton, India: implications for the evolution of the Archean depleted mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 127, 10–24 (2014).
Münker, C., Weyer, S., Scherer, E. & Mezger, K. Separation of high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) and Lu from rock samples for MC-ICPMS measurements. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 2, 1064 (2001).
White, W. M., Albarède, F. & Télouk, P. High-precision analysis of Pb isotope ratios by multi-collector ICP-MS. Chem. Geol. 167, 257–270 (2000).
Todd, E., Stracke, A. & Scherer, E. E. Effects of simple acid leaching of crushed and powdered geological materials on high-precision Pb isotope analyses. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 16, 2276–2302 (2015).
Galer, S. J. G. & Abouchami, W. Practical application of lead triple spiking for correction of instrumental mass discrimination. Mineral. Mag. 62A, 491–492 (1998).
Weis, D. et al. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 7, Q08006 (2006).
Patchett, P. J. & Tatsumoto, M. A routine high-precision method for Lu-Hf isotope geochemistry and chronology. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 75, 263–267 (1981).
Stracke, A. Earth’s heterogeneous mantle: A product of convection-driven interaction between crust and mantle. Chem. Geol. 330–331, 274–299 (2012).
Elliott, T., Zindler, A. & Bourdon, B. Exploring the kappa conundrum: the role of recycling in the lead isotope evolution of the mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 169, 129–145 (1999).
Kuiper, K. F. et al. Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth history. Science 320, 500–504 (2008).
Snee, L. W. Argon Thermochronology of Mineral Deposits: A Review of Analytical Methods, Formulations, and Selected Applications. Bulletin 2194 (US Geological Survey, 2002).
Staudacher, T., Jessberger, E., Dorflinger, D. & Kiko, J. A refined ultrahigh-vacuum furnace for rare gas analysis. J. Phys. E 11, 781 (1978).
McAleer, R. et al. Reaction softening by dissolution–precipitation creep in a retrograde greenschist facies ductile shear zone, New Hampshire, USA. J. Metamorph. Geol. 35, 95–119 (2017).
Haugerud, R. A. & Kunk, M. J. ArAr∗: A Computer Program for Reduction of 40Ar–39Ar Data. Report No. 88-261 (US Geological Survey, 1988).
Deino, A. L. User’s Manual for Mass Spec v. 7.961. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication No. 3 (Berkeley Geochronological Center, Berkeley, 2014).
Ludwig, K.R. User’s Manual for Isoplot 3.75. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication No. 5 (Berkeley Geochronological Center, Berkeley, 2012).
Min, K., Mundil, R., Renne, P. R. & Ludwig, K. R. A test for systematic errors in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology through comparison with U/Pb analysis of a 1.1-Ga rhyolite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 73–98 (2000).
Lee, J.-Y. et al. A redetermination of the isotopic abundances of atmospheric Ar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70, 4507–4512 (2006).
Moucha, R. & Forte, A. M. Changes in African topography driven by mantle convection. Nat. Geosci. 4, 707–712 (2011).
Owaga, M. Chemical stratification in a two-dimensional convecting mantle with magmatism and moving plates. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 108, 2561 (2003).
Duncan, R. A. Age progressive volcanism in the New England seamounts and the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 89, 9980–9990 (1984).
Willbold, M. & Stracke, A. Trace element composition of mantle end-members: implications for recycling of oceanic and upper and lower continental crust. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 7, Q04004 (2006).
Mallik, A. & Dasgupta, R. Reactive infiltration of MORB-eclogite-derived carbonated silicate melt into fertile peridotite at 3 GPa and genesis of alkalic magmas. J. Petrol. 54, 2267–2300 (2013).
Béguelin, P., Bizimis, M., Beier, C. & Turner, S. Rift–plume interaction reveals multiple generations of recycled oceanic crust in Azores lavas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 218, 132–152 (2017).
Baker, J., Peate, D., Waight, T. & Meyzen, C. Pb isotopic analysis of standards and samples using a 207Pb–204Pb double spike and thallium to correct for mass bias with a double-focusing MC-ICP-MS. Chem. Geol. 211, 275–303 (2004).
This study was supported by NSF OCE 1756349 and NSF EAR 1802012 to E.G. and NSF EAR-1249438 to E.A.J. The analytical work on EPMA facility in ISTerre, University Grenoble Alpes was supervised by V. Batanova and supported by grants of Institut Universitaire de France to A.V.S. and by the Richard Lounsbery Foundation to A.V.S. and E.G. S.E.M. thanks J. Dale, J. Trela, J. Berndt and L. Costello for help with sample collection, preparation and analyses. We are grateful to A. Hofmann for discussions. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Nature thanks Gerya Taras and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
The authors declare no competing interests.
Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Extended data figures and tables
a, Bathymetric map of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean based on that from ref. 12, highlighting Bermuda and the Bermuda Rise. The predicted west–east hotspot track78 is shown as a red line. b, Sketch of the Bermuda core stratigraphy, based on the core log from Dalhousie University. The original core log corresponds to physical markings on the core, all given in inches and feet. Locations at which olivine (O) and phlogopite (Phl) phenocrysts have been observed are marked.
a, Photograph of silica-saturated sample B1081, showing aphanitic texture with haematite and calcite veins. b, Photograph of silica-undersaturated sample B1644 showing porphyritic texture with clinopyroxene (Cpx). c, Photograph of silica-undersaturated sample B815 showing porphyritic texture and large phenocrysts of clinopyroxene (Cpx; up to 1 cm in length). d, Photograph of silica-undersaturated sample B193 showing aphanitic texture. e, Micrograph of sample B1908 in cross-polarized light, showing Ti-augite, apatite and phlogopite phenocrysts. f, Micrograph of sample B1908 in cross-polarized light, showing perovskite and nepheline phenocrysts. g, Olivine separates from B2299.
40Ar/39Ar step-heating data for silica-undersaturated lavas from Bermuda. The phlogopite phenocrysts age spectrum records a magmatic age of approximately 30.9 Myr.
Extended Data Fig. 4 Examples of trace-element ratios comparing Bermuda to HIMU, EM1, and EM2 mantle domains from ref. 79.
a, Rb/Sr plotted against 1/Sr, showing Bermuda lavas spanning the range of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 domains. b, Ce/Pb plotted against U/Pb, showing Bermuda lavas as being more enriched than HIMU-derived lavas. c, K/U plotted against Pb/U, showing that Bermuda lavas are K-depleted. d, Ba/Th plotted against Rb/Th, showing that Bermuda lavas have fluid mobile element ratios similar to those of the HIMU domain. e, K/Nb plotted against K/U, showing that Bermuda lavas are K-depleted, with K depletions lower than previously reported for HIMU. f, Th/Pb plotted against U/Pb, showing that Bermuda is not characterized by sulfide fractionation, because Th and U are equally enriched and are more enriched than HIMU. EM1, enriched mantle I; EM2, enriched mantle II.
a, b, 206Pb/204Pb–207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb–208Pb/204Pb plots of Bermuda samples with measured values and age-corrected values (see legend). HIMU65 and Eastern Azores lavas81 are plotted for illustration. Azores MAR, Average NMAR and Iceland MAR end members (GEOROC database) are presented along with their linear regression, the Atlantic array. R3 corresponds to the measured value of sample B703, at t3 = 0 (today). ss, silica-saturated; su, silica-undersaturated. c–f, Monte Carlo results derived from equation (1) for R1 values falling on the Atlantic array. Azores MAR, Average NMAR and Iceland MAR end members are presented at their respective model values. μ = 238U/204Pb, Ω = 232Th/204Pb, κ = 232Th/238U. μ and Ω values of Bermuda silica-undersaturated lavas are presented: dashed blue line, average; solid blue lines, ± 1 s.d.
Modelled μ compositions that are necessary to produce Bermuda’s most radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb sample (B703) starting from the average composition of the silica-saturated, least radiogenic samples. B703 (target) and the average silica-saturated samples have been age-corrected to time of eruption (30 Myr ago). Each line corresponds to possible source ages and the necessary μ for that source to produce an erupted lava that corresponds to B703. t = 40 Myr (70 Myr ago) corresponds to the calculated source age for Bermuda assuming that Bermuda represents an isochron, with a minimum μ < 420 necessary. t = 80 Myr (110 Myr ago) corresponds both to the error of the Bermuda isochron and the age of the oceanic lithosphere around Bermuda. T = 170 Myr (200 Myr ago) corresponds to the rifting of Pangea and the opening of the Atlantic in the region of Bermuda. t = 550 Myr (580 Myr ago) corresponds to the ideal source age that can evolve the least radiogenic sample to the most radiogenic sample with a μ of 50 (the actual μ for B703). Ma, million years ago.
Recommended USGS standard values (BHVO-2, AGV-2 and BCR-2) compared with standards run during this study for 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb. Recommended standard values are from refs 63,82 and the most recent GEOREM preferred values. We did not leach any of our standards. It is important to note that ref. 63 reports that all the USGS standards are variably contaminated during processing, and therefore we plot the residues and leachate data for these USGS standards. a, b, Pb isotopes for BHVO-2 showing that our 206Pb/204Pb ratios are within error of the other values, but our 207Pb/204Pb ratios are lower than those in refs 63,82, yet within error of the GEOREM recommended values and the residues of leaching from ref. 63. In ref. 63 it was noted that the BHVO-2 and BHVO-1 are contaminated and that, upon leaching, their residues converge. c, d, Pb isotopes for AGV-2 showing that our data are within error of those in ref. 63 and the GEOREM recommended values. On the basis of AGV-2, our Pb isotope data are both accurate and highly precise (the duplicates overlap on the symbol size). e, f, Pb isotopes for BCR-2 showing that our 207Pb/204Pb values are identical to those of refs 63,82. As in the BHVO-2, our data are closer to the residues of leaching reported in ref. 63. Ours and literature data plot on a mixing line with the residues of leaching for BCR-2 being highly variable, pointing to heterogeneity in these standards.
40Ar/39Ar age dating for Bermuda samples B1908, B703, B1641, and B1036. Table contains sample information, analytical conditions, constants used in geochronological calculations, and raw data from step-heating data collection.
Bulk rock geochemistry, olivine-spinel mineral geochemistry, and FTIR and mineral geochemistry for clinopyroxene. Bulk rock geochemistry includes sample description (depth in core in feet, phenocrysts present, age if applicable), major oxides (wt%), trace elements (ppm), 176Hf/177Hf, 143Nd/144Nd, 87Sr/86Sr, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios. Olivine (Ol) – Spinel (Sp) thermometry includes major oxides (wt%) for olivine and spinel inclusions, as well as the calculations for olivine crystallization temperatures. Magmatic water from clinopyroxene (Cpx) includes FTIR results and calculations for OH in clinopyroxene grains, and the major oxide (wt%) composition. Final H2O in the magma calculations are also presented.
Monte Carlo modeling for Pb isotope source composition from Bermuda. Includes measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb isotopic compositions and age corrected values for time of eruption (30 Myr), Monte Carlo simulations, and the results from the modeling.
About this article
Cite this article
Mazza, S.E., Gazel, E., Bizimis, M. et al. Sampling the volatile-rich transition zone beneath Bermuda. Nature 569, 398–403 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1183-6
Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2020)
Paired EMI-HIMU hotspots in the South Atlantic—Starting plume heads trigger compositionally distinct secondary plumes?
Science Advances (2020)
Kimberlite genesis from a common carbonate-rich primary melt modified by lithospheric mantle assimilation
Science Advances (2020)