a, Immunoprecipitation–immunoblot analysis of phosphorylated and total p38γ in liver extracts from AlbCre control mice, showing p38γ activation upon acute treatment with DEN (100 mg kg−1 for 2 h). Liver lysates (2 mg) were immunoprecipitated with anti-p38γ antibody followed by immunoblotting as indicated. b, Immunoblot analysis of Rb S807/S811 phosphorylation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen content in livers of AlbCre mice and AlbCre-p38γ mice 1 month after injection of DEN. Vinculin is shown as a loading control. c, Representative images of Ki67 immunohistochemistry in livers of AlbCre and AlbCre-p38γ mice 8 months after injection of DEN. Scale bar, 500 μm. Data are mean ± s.e.m. n = 10 fields in n = 7 mice. Two-sided Student’s t-test; ***P < 0.001. d, e, AlbCre and AlbCre-p38γ mice were injected with 2 ml kg−1 of carbon tetrachloride (v/v) in 20% corn oil, three times per week for 14 weeks. All mice were fed a high-fat diet. d, Representative images of liver tumours (left) and quantification of tumour size (right). Comparisons were made by a two-tailed Student’s t-test with Welch’s correction; ***P < 0.001. e, Immunohistochemical staining and Ki67 quantification of liver tissue sections. Comparisons were performed with a two-sided Student’s t-test; ***P < 0.001. Scale bar, 100 μm. Quantification is shown as mean ± s.e.m. n = 5 fields from n = 9 mice. f, g, Streptozotocin was subcutaneously injected (60 mg g−1) into AlbCre and AlbCre-p38γ mice at P1.5. All mice were fed a high-fat diet and histopathologically assessed at 27 weeks of age. f, Immunohistochemical staining for phosphor-Rb S795 of liver tissue sections. AlbCre mice: n = 5; AlbCre-p38γ mice: n = 5. Comparisons were performed using a two-tailed Student’s t-test with Welch’s correction; ***P < 0.001. Scale bar, 100 μm. g, Ki67 staining on liver tissue sections. AlbCre mice, n = 4; AlbCre-p38γ mice, n = 5. Quantification is shown as mean ± s.e.m. n = 2–6. Scale bar, 100 μm. Comparisons were performed using a two-sided Student’s t-test;**P < 0.01.