a, Simplified schematic of the closed-circuit perfusion device. S, sensor; P, pump. b, Connection of the porcine brain to the perfusion system via arterial lines. The pulse generator (PG) transforms continuous flow to pulsatile perfusion. Ports for arteriovenous sampling are shown. In this preparation, the dura can be carefully cut and folded medially to access the brain for experimentation; surgical care is taken to ensure that cortical bridging veins remain intact. R-ICA and L-ICA, right and left internal carotid arteries; c, Schematic depicting the experimental workflow and conditions. AM, ante-mortem; CP, control perfusate.