The cumulative regional and global mass changes (in Gt, represented by the volume of the bubbles) are shown for the 19 first-order regions1 (outlined with bold black lines). Specific mass-change rates (m w.e. yr−1) are indicated by the colours of the bubbles. In the background, the locations of glaciological and geodetic data samples are plotted over the glacier polygons from RGI 6.0. The grey plus signs mark latitudes and longitudes. As an example, glaciers in Alaska (ALA) show the largest contribution to sea-level rise, with a total mass change of approximately −3,000 Gt or 8 mm sea-level equivalent (s.l.e.) from 1961 to 2016, because of a strongly negative specific mass-change rate (−0.6 m w.e. yr−1) combined with a large regional glacier area. Note that South Asia West (ASW, blue bubble) is the only region in which glaciers slightly gained mass. ACN, Arctic Canada North; ACS, Arctic Canada South; ANT, Antarctic and Subantarctic; ASC, Central Asia; ASE, South Asia East; ASN, North Asia; CAU, Caucasus and Middle East; CEU, Central Europe; GRL, Greenland; ISL, Iceland; NZL, New Zealand; RUA, Russian Arctic; SAN, Southern Andes; SCA, Scandinavia; SJM, Svalbard and Jan Mayen; TRP, Low Latitudes; WNA, Western Canada and USA (see Table 1).