a–c, Average change in ecosystem function (compared to predictions for natural habitats, log-transformed) increased linearly with land-use intensity (linear model, P < 0.01) for soil- (a), plant- (b) and animal-mediated (c) ecosystem functions. n = 50 study sites. d–f, The effect (strength) of land-use intensity on the mean change in ecosystem functioning (grey bars) was, on average, highest for plant-mediated ecosystem functions. The effects of land-use intensity significantly differed among elevation zones in plant- and animal-mediated ecosystem functions (linear model, Pinteraction < 0.05), but did not differ in soil-mediated ecosystem functions. n = 50 study sites.