For soil- and plant-mediated ecosystem functions, the absolute effect strength values are—on average—higher for MAP, whereas animal-mediated ecosystem functions are more strongly influenced by MAT (linear mixed effect model, interaction term (type of ecosystem function × type of climate variable), n = 30 study sites, P < 0.05). The height of the bar shows the mean. Error bars show the standard errors of absolute effect strength values for each type of ecosystem function and climate variable. The bar graphs have been calculated from the data shown in Extended Data Table 3. ESF, ecosystem function.