a, Three blocks of two baseline and four punished oDASS sessions were performed during a two-month period. Left, oDASS rate as a function of advancing sessions and average for the two groups. Middle, perseverance measured during punishment sessions 3–4 was compared to sessions 11–12. Perseverance was calculated as the average oDASS during the two punished sessions normalized to the corresponding baseline rate. No effect of punishment block was detected. Right, correlation between perseverance between first and last block (sessions 3–4 versus session 11–12), Pearson’s r = 0.88 (n = 26). b, Left, perseverance and baseline rate for male and female mice of the two clusters (for perseverance, ANOVA followed two-sided t-test: *P < 0.0001, t60 = 23.02 for persevering versus renouncing female mice (n = 39 and 23 mice, respectively); *P < 0.0001, t45 = 22.30 for persevering versus renouncing male mice (n = 20 and 27 mice, respectively). Right, no difference in baseline rate was detected between the two clusters, nor between male and female mice (n = 109 mice). c, Left, cumulative active presses as a function of the progressive ratio. Middle, perseverance as a function of the breakpoint during the progressive ratio schedule for male (42, squares) and female (56, circles). Note that in Fig. 1e, data are presented with cumulative active presses, which avoids the steps that are observed inherent to the breakpoint plot. No difference in breakpoint was detected between the two clusters, nor between male and female mice (n = 98 mice). d, Temporal structure of an oDASS trial showing the delays between active press during baseline and punished sessions for cluster 1 and cluster 2 mice (renouncing and persevering mice, respectively). Delays were increased in renouncing mice (ANOVA followed by two-sided t-test: *P < 0.05 in punished sessions for persevering versus renouncing mice for every delay (n = 66 and 43 mice, respectively); #P < 0.05; baseline/punished for renouncing mice for every delay). Data are mean ± s.e.m. See Supplementary Table 1 for complete statistics.