a, Hierarchical cluster of countries based on average marginal causal effect. One hundred and thirty countries with at least 100 respondents were selected (range, 101–448,125). The three colours of the dendrogram branches represent three large clusters—Western, Eastern, and Southern. Country names are coloured according to the Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map 2010–201421. Distributions across the three clusters reveal stark differences. For instance, cluster 2 (Eastern) consists mostly of countries of Islamic and Confucian cultures. By contrast, cluster 1 (Western) has large percentages of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox countries in Europe. b, Mean AMCE z-scores of the three major clusters. Radar plot of the mean AMCE z-scores of three clusters reveals a striking pattern of differences between the clusters along the nine attributes. For example, countries belonging to the Southern cluster show a strong preference for sparing females compared to countries in other clusters.