Fig. 3: Breastfeeding status was the most significant microbiome covariate associated with all datasets throughout the first year of life. | Nature

Fig. 3: Breastfeeding status was the most significant microbiome covariate associated with all datasets throughout the first year of life.

From: Temporal development of the gut microbiome in early childhood from the TEDDY study

Fig. 3

Breastfeeding status was significantly associated with microbiome profiles over the first three time points (months 3–14, n = 2,257; Supplementary Table 1). Curves show locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS) for the data per category, and shaded areas show permutation-based 95% confidence intervals for the fit. a, Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plots showing the mean centroid of each breastfeeding status group. Plots include only the first sample obtained from a patient within a given time point; months 3–6, 7–10 and 11–14. Centroid size based on number of samples and the bars represent the ±95% confidence interval. b, Plots showing the receipt of breast milk from months 3 to 40 of age compared to the relative abundance of the six most abundant Bifidobacterium species over the same period (n = 11,717). c, Longitudinal Shannon diversity index from months 3 to 40 of age (n = 11,717). d, Longitudinal development of the microbiome maturation based on the microbiota age and MAZ score against the age of the infant at sampling (n = 11,717). e, Heat map showing the mean abundance of all significant modules as determined by MaAsLin analysis at each of the first three time points. The corresponding pathway for each module is also presented. BM, breast milk. f, Stacked bar plots showing the abundance of each significant module binned at the pathway level. Abundance plotted per bacterial species, with the five most significant species associated with breastfed and non-breastfed infants, respectively.