a, A typical retromer–Vps5-coated tubule. Models of the individual elements of retromer–Vps5 have been placed at positions and orientations determined by subtomogram averaging. On the left, the Vps5 and Vps26 layers are shown; the middle and right show the complete coat. On the right is a view along the tube axis of a retromer tubule. Representative models were prepared by segmentation and low-pass filtering of key features, and their respective protein structures are illustrated. b, A model of the Vps5–Vps26 layers (corresponding to the dashed box in a). Vps26 dimers dock in six relative orientations on the underlying Vps5 array, indicated by magenta arrows (Extended Data Fig. 7e). c, A complete model of the retromer coat section shown in b. d, A slice through one of 12 tomographic reconstructions of a C. reinhardtii cell in which retromer-coated membranes were identified (arrowheads). e, Magnified views of two of 17 retromer-coated membranes in which arches can be seen. f, Density maps filtered to 35 Å from retromer structures determined by subtomogram averaging in situ within the cell and in vitro, fitted with retromer models.